Wednesday, October 30, 2019

The Impact of Internships on Graduate Employability Literature review

The Impact of Internships on Graduate Employability - Literature review Example 1). This practice is institutionalized in modern times as part of the academic requirements to immerse students to the community, hospital, companies and in multinational organization to provide practical dimension of the theories learned from universities and colleges. Every year, thousands of youths and fresh graduates flock to companies in search for opportunities to hone their knowledge and to gain competitive leverage in the market with limited opportunities for millions of job seekers. This year, there are about 370,000 graduates who will be competing for limited jobs in the market (Grunwald, 2012, p. 1). The economic recession however, became an impetus for companies to accommodate interns to maintain its operation in a cost-effective measure. For the company, the jobless wanting to be registered under internship program is a remedial opportunity in response to economic depression. Recently, youths began complaining that their rights and welfares are abused as unpaid workers o f the company. Introduction Internship is an opportunity to gain empirical experiences in a specific career field. This could be an academic requirement, like those who are taking medicine, nursing, and in hotel or restaurant management (Loretto, 2012, p. 1). Others avail of this program to gain personal leverage for employment. Most of those who embarked on this system are fresh graduates of colleges and universities with capacity on communication, organizational management, and good interpersonal relations aside from good academic standing (Loretto, 2012, p. 1). These interns are generally held under a supervisor who would assign them on some tasks and monitor their progress. Those taking internship with credited hours for academic grade, the faculty closely relates with the company’s management to ascertain that the desired outcome of the training is achieved. Those interns with genuine interest to learn may find this experience as a relevant part of understanding the care er path they have chosen and hopefully develop a service-oriented culture based on excellence and professional relation with the management and clienteles (Beard, 2007, pp. 207-220). This review will critically discuss the correlation of internship with employability of graduates. Internship and Opportunities In this post-modern period, students and graduates are encouraged to take job placement role from workplaces to value knowledge earned from these on-job trainings that are either paid or unpaid. Experts believed that this is a valuable mechanism for those who are willing to undergo practical training and those who wanted to attain leverage to market’s economic opportunities. Human resource experts have already advised students to make their job portfolio and experiences earlier. They thought that learners shouldn’t be dissuaded from undertaking part-time jobs as an added value of work experience in their respective curriculum vitae. This adds to their credentials as potential employee. Nowadays, there are many universities and colleges that offer internship programs on placements to hone their skills and abilities. This promotes their employability after graduation as companies these days would prefer human resources that have attained positive record and recommendations from internship program (Kadlec, 2009, p. 1). Economically, internship has been adopted as socially acceptable

Monday, October 28, 2019

How Effective Is Homeschooling Essay Example for Free

How Effective Is Homeschooling Essay Education is a basic requirement for inculcating civic, moral and intellectual faculties of a human being. While imparting education in a public setup is the commonest of all methodologies adopted worldwide, learning at home under the guidance of parents and/or professional teachers is also a widespread practice. Popularly referred to as homeschooling, this system of learning has come to the fore replacing formal educational methodologies. The history of homeschooling dates back to the 1920s, but the real revolution occurred in the 1960s and the 1970s when the liberal alternative school movement was set rolling. Researching into the topic, it is evident that most parents opting for homeschooling fall under radical socialists and naturalists who do not have faith in the bureaucratic setup of the American society. Moreover, the gasping nature of fierce competition has also contributed to the withdrawal from traditional educational means. There are legal liabilities and the issue of compulsory schooling attendance as far as public schooling is concerned. Albeit the environmental aspects and the mold of teaching are arguably in proximity with what can be termed as ideal in a public education system, many parents in the United States of America deem it an added advantage for their kids that they should gain access to a comprehensive educational repertoire at home. In matters of homeschooling, the legal issues involved with affiliation and certification are taken care of correspondence schools or umbrella schools. What set homeschooling distinctly apart from the conventional modes of education are facilities of unit studies, child-oriented educational materials and above all, constant parental supervision. This essay is going to discuss elaborately on the efficacy of homeschooling and its relevance in the hustling ways of modern world. All the major school of thoughts propagated by scholars and researchers will be thoroughly reviewed, thus allowing for the development of a set of viewpoints on homeschooling. The prevalence of homeschooling in the United States of America has been such in the past decade or so that it has been made legal in many states. In fact today it is widely regarded to be a perfect alternative mode of teaching at the K-12 level (Cooper 109). The media too has focused on the issue rigorously and has brought about a remarkable change in the mindset of even the most orthodox of parents and educators. Going by sheer statistics, 300, 000 children were taught at home in 1990. This number increased almost with a vertical leap by the end of 1998 when there were more than 1. 5 millions of homeschooled children across the country (Saba Gattis 1). Since the US government’s educational policy allows for autonomy of sorts for each state, the process of imbibing any new measure is relatively easier. The designated council or board of a particular state can decide for themselves which method suits young learners the most. Accordingly, each state is designated with certain number of grants or permissions by virtue of which they can permit homeschooling. The results just speak for themselves as a vast majority of homeschooled children excel remarkably well in a broad spectrum of academic disciplines, ranging from winning the national spelling bees to earning themselves coveted degrees at the leading universities in the country. Now before delving deep into various argumentative doctrines on homeschooling, let’s just look into the basics of this rapidly evolving trend. The first question we are going to deal with involves the reason behind homeschooling. What are the unique aspects of homeschooling? Why do people tend to prefer this mode of education over public schooling? Due to the independent, state-specific educational system in America, public schools are accessible to all free of charge. For working parents not belonging to the elite segments of the society, the rationale behind choosing public schools is quite self-explanatory. But the growing trend of homeschooling calls for our attention and makes us inquisitive to investigate into the root of educational philosophies. First and foremost, fostering a child at home demands a persistent level of commitment for both parents. It not only helps the child learn in a known environment, but also strengthens the family togetherness. Since a child spends most of its time at home, the well cultivated families do not wish to assign the task of imparting education to external teachers (Stevens 30). It is purely a question of family values that a child should learn from its parents and not from those who do not share their personal spaces. Besides, many parents are guided by stern religious beliefs and want their children to follow the same paths. In public schools, children may confront teachers, instructors or fellow students with different religious faiths. So the parents feel safer with homeschooling. Another extremely valid reason behind homeschooling involves the learning environment of public schools. The quality of education in a public institution is bound to suffer due to large number of students and inadequacy of teaching tools. Albeit the student-teacher ratio is quite healthy in American public schools especially at the primary level, it still is not enough for every child to get the required attention. Moreover, children studying at public schools are taught a similar curriculum. If a particular child has different fields of interest, it is not encouraged to develop skills and knowledge on those lines. The imaginative faculties of mind slowly become blunt and ineffectual due to the institutionalized methods of teaching. Homeschooling, on the other hand, is helpful for identifying a child’s interests and unique areas of talent. Hence, education does not become a loathsome burden for the children. By relating to what they are taught, they can enjoy while they learn (Rockett 138). Most families belonging to minority groups regard homeschooling to be the best available option for their kids. This is because those children are hardly paid attention to by their local teachers at public schools (Saba Gattis 3). It is never wise to send children with physical or mental deformities to public schools. The span and extent of attention they need can never be expected from teachers who have to look after a class of pupils. It is far better to keep those children at home and build up the required infrastructure with teaching aids. Hiring a teacher at home is a plausible solution in such cases. By resolving to one-on-one teaching modes, a challenged kid’s potential can be maximized. News of massacres, illegal drug trafficking and teen sexuality hit the headlines frequently in the US. Researches show that parents who are aware of these events choose homeschooling to ensure safety of their kids. These parents feel they can control the company of their children if they learn from home. Moreover, in the US public schools, many children hail from troubled families and tend to act violently and in a bullying manner towards other students. Contours of homeschooling decidedly relieve of such headaches. The legal aspects of homeschooling are still subject to a lot of debate and controversy. Given the parochial setup of homeschools, it is elementary to infer that they must be stripped off many benefits available at public schools, including the system of tests. The existing rights in favor of homeschooling in the United States of America were hard earned. It was by the Supreme Court’s verdict in the 1920s that enabled the states to intervene into educational affairs. Homeschooling, a fringe and distant possibility during those days, has undoubtedly come a long way. Keeping in mind the thesis question of this paper, it is now time to ponder over certain theoretical conjectures on learning in general. The schools of thought on learning and education are, however, subject to a varied degree of hypothesis. Scholars are yet to arrive at a stable perception as to which methodology of teaching augurs well for most young students. Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory is one of the seminal works of literature throwing a searching light into the complex processes of assimilation and deliverance for young, pliant minds. But since this theory was formed primarily from heuristic studies, its accuracy is questionable. Nevertheless, many later theories on education and learning are grounded on the assumptions made by this theory. According to Jean Piaget, the three main pillars of learning are organization, equilibrium and progression. The basis of his argument concentrated on the predictability of children’s cognitive formation. To put it differently, he pointed out that a child develops newer thought patterns with age and maturity. It is inherent in a child that it should search for newer elements in everything it sees. Known as organization, this process is responsible for accumulation of knowledge. What directly relates to this process is a cognitive phenomenon called schemes. This phenomenon is involved with preparing a mental picture of things to do. In other words, when a kid is asked to perform a lengthy multiplication, he/she prepares a mental framework as to how to go about the task in an organized manner. The next phenomenon comes when the child explores a better way to carry out a task. It is called adaptation. When new information is passed on, the child has to first of all ‘take’ it in before it can be processed and assimilated (Clements 2). Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory has crucial implementations in the context of choosing the best curriculum for homeschooling. His insightful analysis of the role of parents in children’s education helps in decision making as to how children learn. Do they imitate what they see, or do parents need to play a more guiding part in showing their children what and where to look for? Since this system of education does not involve social interaction which is so typical of classroom teaching, extra care has to be taken in devising learning plans. Diagnosing the intelligence quotient of a child is just as important as judging the level of prior education, should the student be an advanced learner. The final module for course works and other study materials should be prepared after careful scrutiny of the learner’s temperament. As a novel research effort in the field of educational psychology and motivation theory, Piaget’s findings indeed simplified the understanding of children’s cognitive bloc. The second argument that can be propelled concerns the role of academic materials or learning resources in the curricula of pupils. What is often seen in public schooling environments is that a vast array of course materials covering every subject are available. This is particularly favorable as far as step-by-step learning is concerned. The student can make the required shift from one level to another without having to skip any of the important learning modules. But espousing homeschooling methodologies often throw up a quandary for parents as to the suitability of the course materials at hand (Perry 54). This occurs mainly because of the lack of awareness about academic resources for a given standard. This usually happens for the first child in a household with more than one child. Due to lack of knowledge and experience, parents feel uncertain about the proper educational grooming techniques. Hence for the beginners, it generally takes a couple of years to gain command over the objectives and modes of teaching, including ‘unschooling’ and ‘phonics’ (Suarez 1). It is followed the most important part of the system, e. . , selecting the right tools and integrating them to create a congenial environment for learning at home. Unit study, for example, is a widely trusted educational methodology for homeschooling. The depth of this methodology and the fun of learning associated with it make for an ideal module for the beginners. Several subjects such as Mathematics, Social Sciences, History, Geography and Theology are combined together under a common natural or to pic-specific theme like water, animals, or ancient Egypt. For instance, if the academic discipline to be discussed in a particular sitting is Mathematics, the child would be introduced to the story of ancient Egypt and how Mathematics flourished over there. No doubt, the commonality of the central topic generates the fun of unit study methods. The young learner can relate just one topic to a variety of academic disciplines. However, it is to be made sure that the thematic topic should have connections with all the subjects. Study of languages occupies an important place in unit study. Not only does it help in communicating, it also gives the children a broad view of the world and people around them (Field 85). Far from just as an educational ploy to bring out the untapped resources of a child, the societal significance of homeschooling can never be underrated. It is imperative that we understand the significance of homeschooling from a twofold perspective. Firstly, the coziness of the family bondage gets stronger and closer with all the members of it spending time together. This is precisely the reason why many mainstream parents are falling back on homeschooling as the prospective mode of education for their kids. However, some shortcomings of this educational model are also there, especially the accusation that little kids do not get the chance to interact socially with others. This lack of socializing sometimes tells upon the mental health of even the most meritorious boy in a pool of ordinary geeks who, after all, know how to enjoy the little things life has to offer. But it is a minor glitch in a far greater canvas of a revolutionary and highly individualistic learning framework.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney :: essays research papers

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney was born on February 25th, 1746 at Charleston, the eldest son of a politically prominent planter and a remarkable mother who introduced and promoted indigo culture in South Carolina. 7 years later, he accompanied his father, who had been appointed colonial agent for South Carolina, to England. As a result, the young Charles enjoyed a European education. Pinckney received tutoring in London, attended several preparatory schools, and went on to Christ Church College, Oxford, where he heard the lectures of the legal authority Sir William Blackstone and graduated in 1764. Pinckney next pursued legal training at London's. Middle Temple and was accepted for admission into the English bar in 1769. He then spent part of a year touring Europe and studying chemistry, military science, and botany under leading authorities. Late in 1769, Pinckney sailed home and the next year entered practice in South Carolina. His political career began in 1769, when he was elected to the provincial assembly. When South Carolina organized its forces in 1775 to battle the British, Pinckney joined the First South Carolina Regiment as a captain. He soon rose to the rank of colonel and fought in the South in defence of Charleston and in the North at the Battles of Brandywine, PA, and Germantown, PA. When Charleston fell in 1780, he was taken prisoner and held until 1782. The following year, he was discharged as a brevet brigadier general.Pinckney was one of the leaders at the Constitutional Convention. Present at all the sessions, he strongly advocated a powerful national government. His proposal that senators should serve without pay was not adopted, but he exerted influence in such matters as the power of the Senate to ratify treaties and the compromise that was reached concerning abolition of the international slave trade. After the convention, he defended the Constitution in South Carolina. In 1796, however, he accepted the post of Minister to France, but the revolutionary regime there refused to receive him and he was forced to proceed to the Netherlands. The next year, though, he returned to France when he was appointed to a special mission to restore relations with that country. During the ensuing XYZ affair, refusing to pay a bribe suggested by a French agent to facilitate negotiations, he was said to have replied "No! No! Not a sixpence!"When Pinckney arrived back in the United States in 1798, he found the country preparing for war with France.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Rhetorical Analysis of an Argument

Jordan Sands Jaimie Young ENG 101 23 January 2013 Rhetorical Analysis of an Argument The Direct TV commercial â€Å"Don’t attend your own funeral† focuses on the quality of service, and the customer service of regular cable in comparison to Direct TV. From the beginning scene and progression of the commercial, it’s implied that cable service is bad, causing customers to need someone to come fix the service. This would trigger a chain of events, outrageously resulting in having to fake a funeral. As unbelievable and unrealistic as the claim may seem, the audience has been addressed with a sense of humor which makes the claim effective.The commercial starts out with an â€Å"average Joe† at home sitting in front of his TV. You can tell by the scene, he lives in a small apartment, appears to be single, and is aged between 20 and 30 years old. This situation would apply to a majority of the audience/people seeing this commercial. The TV has a gray screen, and the commercial is introduced as, â€Å"When you wait forever for the cable guy, you get bored. † This gives the audience the idea that cable service is bad, and doesn’t work; therefore you would need a technician to come fix it.This would be considered an audience appeal in a more ethical way; it gives Direct TV the credibility regular cable doesn’t have, and is being stripped of in this commercial. As claimed, when someone gets bored while waiting, they look outside and â€Å"see things they shouldn’t see†, which is demonstrated in the commercial as two men putting a large plastic bag into the back of a car. You can tell by the men’s reactions that â€Å"Joe† was in trouble. The next scene is Joe in his room, which is very plainly decorated, and small. The entire lay out of his house is dull, and doesn’t draw attention at all.When noticing this, it’s also shown that Joe is very plainly dressed as well; he has muted-colo red casual business attire on. This gives the impression that if someone has cable, their life is normal and almost boring; life would be so much more vibrant and convenient with Direct TV. Joe is seen frantically putting things into a suitcase because he â€Å"needs to vanish†. That escalates into him swimming away from a burning boat, and the announcers’ explanation is that he needed to fake his own death in order to vanish. After that, Joe is forced to dye his eyebrows in order to live a double life.Meaning for the audience; if you don’t have Direct TV, you need a new life. This is one of the underlining assumptions that things are tied together- or the warrant. The last time we see Joe, he is sitting in the back of a funeral service. His entire appearance has changed; he looks much older, has glasses on and he has white hair, eyebrows, and a mustache. Everyone in the crowd is crying, looking down, etc. This gives the audience the emotional aspect of the evid ence, connecting them to the situation. Joe is keeping his head down as the announcer says, â€Å"And when you dye your eyebrows, you attend your own funeral as a guy named Phil Shifley.Don’t attend your own funeral as a guy named Phil Shifley. † In other words, don’t go through all of this trouble in result of having regular cable, and switch to Direct TV. This same advice is given through a more straight forward approach by saying â€Å"Get rid of cable. † Another warrant would be, getting rid of cable will get rid of all these outrageous problems that cable may and will cause. The audience can appreciate the humor of the idea that obviously things wouldn’t actually escalate like in the commercial just because of your TV service.The idea of this chain of events being connected to not having Direct TV would be the warrant. The audience is also showed a price of the service starting at $29. 99 a month, making it seem as if it’s an easy fix. The prices would be considered a logical audience appeal; cheap prices are always an eye grabber. As far as a stretch as it is, the audience successfully gets the idea that regular cable is not worth having. When it’s not working, it takes a long time for the customer service to come through; leaving the customer without a TV. This leads to the question, â€Å"Why pay more for something that doesn’t work? when shown seemingly cheap prices for Direct TV’s more reliable, customer friendly service. When the audience is given a person to relate to: the average Joe, and a situation to connect to: TV trouble and a normal life, it makes it easier for the audience to put themselves into Joe’s position. When trying to sell a product, one of the key points is to paint a picture for the customer; show them why they need something and how it can better their lives. Making the customer laugh lightens the mood. All of these points have been met in this commercial, so it would be considered effective.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Case Vignettes in Acid-Base Balance Essay

Choose three of the four vignettes and BRIEFLY answer the questions that follow. Normal Levels of Substances in the Arterial Blood: pH 7.40 + 0.05 pCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide) 40 mm Hg pO2 (partial pressure of oxygen) 90 – 100 mm Hg Hemoglobin – O2 saturation 94 – 100 % [HCO3-] 24 meq / liter Vignette #1: A 14-year-old girl with cystic fibrosis has complained of an increased cough productive of green sputum over the last week. She also complained of being increasingly short of breath, and she is noticeably wheezing on physical examination. Arterial blood was drawn and sampled, revealing the following values: pH 7.30 pCO2 50 mm Hg pO2 55 mm Hg Hemoglobin – O2 saturation 45 % [HCO3-] 24 meq / liter Questions: 1. How would you classify this girl’s acid-base status? 2. How does cystic fibrosis cause this acid-base imbalance? 3. How would the kidneys try to compensate for the girl’s acid-base imbalance? 4. List some other causes of this type of acid-base disturbance. Vignette #2:  A 76-year-old man complained to his wife of severe sub-sternal chest pains that radiated down the inside of his left arm. Shortly afterward, he collapsed on the living room floor. Paramedics arriving at his house just minutes later found him unresponsive, not breathing, and without a pulse. CPR and electroconvulsive shock were required to start his heart beating  again. Upon arrival at the Emergency Room, the man started to regain consciousness, complaining of severe shortness of breath (dyspnea) and continued chest pain. On physical examination, his vital signs were as follows: Systemic blood 85 mm Hg / 50 mm pressure Hg Heart rate 175 beats / minute Respiratory rate 32 breaths / minute Temperature 99.2o F His breathing was labored, his pulses were rapid and weak everywhere, and his skin was cold and clammy. An ECG was done, revealing significant â€Å"Q† waves in most of the leads. Blood testing revealed markedly elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels of cardiac muscle origin. Arterial blood was sampled and revealed the following: pH 7.22 pCO2 30 mm Hg pO2 70 mm Hg Hemoglobin – O2 saturation 88 % [HCO3-] 2 meq / liter Questions: 5. What is the diagnosis? What evidence supports your diagnosis? 6. How would you classify his acid-base status? What specifically caused this acidbase disturbance? 7. How has his body started to compensate for this acid-base disturbance? 8. List some other causes of this type of acid-base disturbance. Vignette #3: An elderly gentleman is in a coma after suffering a severe stroke. He is in the intensive care unit and has been placed on a ventilator. Arterial blood gas measurements from the patient reveal the following: pH 7.50 pCO2 30 mm Hg pO2 100 mm Hg Hemoglobin – O2 saturation 98% [HCO3-] 24 meq / liter Questions: 9. How would you classify this patient’s acid-base status? 10. How does this patient’s hyperventilation pattern raise the pH of the blood? 11. How might the kidneys respond to this acid-base disturbance? 12. List some other causes of this type of acid-base disturbance.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Diary Of A Hugger Analysis Essays

Diary Of A Hugger Analysis Essays Diary Of A Hugger Analysis Essay Diary Of A Hugger Analysis Essay Before shooting my documentary, I carried out some research on the typical conventions that they usually use. This was a challenge as each documentary in its own right has set out to create a different effect on its audience, and within that, each audience is different according to the documentary. Despite this, I found that documentaries always create a relationship between themselves and the audience, and make sure that their audience establish an opinion relating to the topic. For my filming coursework I decided to make the first three minutes of a diary style documentary. The main concept was surrounding a Free Hug Campaign and the events leading up to it in the form of a diary, so using a handheld camera was appropriate as it created an authentic and personal feel to the documentary. Although the shots were set up, they had to appear to be spontaneous moments of filming and merely a record of the events that were taking place. The title Diary of a Hugger seemed appropriate and clear, it emphasises the diary style and hugger is quite a colloquial word that adds informality. To add to the diary style of documentary, on certain shots I added text to the bottom left hand corner of the screen stating Day One or Day Two, this is a way of keeping the audience informed of the time scale of filming and also adds to the authenticity. Along with this, I have used white text on a black background when introducing the original project as this gives the appearance as the text being completely factual, and accurate. Each day of filming starts with an establishing shot to set the scene, and this is also a panning shot to show more of the frame for the audience. Usually these establishing shots are before a set of scenes that are filmed within the same place .The shot of the house shows that the area is fairly suburban and standard in a terraced house, so that the campaign is just being done by a normal person and therefore could be done by anyone, this is a way of creating a relationship with the audience. By creating this image, the idea could inspire the audience to do a free hug campaign themselves. When filming the shot of the station, I purposefully did a high angle shot, which gives the impression that something is foreboding or about to happen, and the view of the camera is over looking the event. I thought this would help to build up the tension for the audience, and was used in documentaries such as Touching the Void Within the documentary I have chosen to include two talking head interviews from two people who have different opinions of the free hug campaign. This way the audience get two different views, and it appears to be unbiased. A talking head shot was appropriate for this, as the attention is on the speaker and their opinions can be put across clearly. I found this to be effective in the three-minute documentary Smoking Day Zero, as it was one speaker throughout. Each interview was also filmed within the house which was in the first establishing shot, I thought this would add to the idea of these being normal people in natural surroundings, and not previously set up at all. For example, the second interview is filmed in the kitchen, and the first on a couch. At the beginning of the documentary, I have included some found footage in the form of some photos of the original free hug campaign, and ones that have followed after it to show the large impact that its already had on the world, and the 80 countries its been in. There is a famous video of clips from the original campaign, which is quite well known around the Internet, so by including some intertextuality, the audience may already recognise the campaign and images included. After this there is a MCU stood in front of a brick wall, talking about the effects of the free hug campaign. The brick wall could connote the formality and monotonous ways in which we live, and how the free hug campaign could change this and bring people together. I got the idea of having the first shot by a brick wall from Pink Floyds song Another brick in the wall, where many of the lyrics could be seen as challenging the idea of every one being the same, and living in a society where no one cares anymore. One of the aims of the free hug campaign was to challenge this and show the world that strangers arent that bad. The fade at the end works well as it leaves the results of the campaign to the audiences imagination. Going along with the idea of building tension, I decided to film on a train as the thought of travelling to do the free hugs creates even more anxiety. In addition to this, it is another talking head, speaking about feeling nervous about what is going to happen and this adds to the edgy situation. There were some technical difficulties when filming my documentary, for example when uploading on to the editing program, there was a fault that created lines across each shot, and after trying to overcome this with different cameras, I had to work around it and accept that some shots were partially distorted. As well as this, when filming a computer screen, the screen itself flickers which makes it difficult to see what is being shown. With more advanced equipment I would have been able to concentrate more on lighting, and making sure that each shot was clear and the lighting was directed on to the subject. I would have like to use a microphone as well to aid the narrative. As well as this, if the piece was able to be longer, I would have liked to go on to have the free hug campaign take place, and film the results of it and peoples reactions. Overall the documentary fulfils its purpose, and together with the camera angles and the narrative the effect on the audience is successful. I am happy with the outcome of my documentary, however I would have like to be able to make it longer, with more of an emphasis on the general publics point of views towards such a campaign that involves spontaneous human contact so that the audience can establish more of a relationship with the documentary. I feel that the diary style worked well, and that because of this, there was able to be a personal feel that the audience could identify with.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Mothers, Children and Maternal Depression essays

Mothers, Children and Maternal Depression essays Is there a direct relationship between childrens developmental stages and maternal depression? Research suggests that childrens development can be adversely affected by maternal depression. A depressed person has more negative cognitions than that of non-depressed counterparts. Depressed adults have also been found to demonstrate negative self-perceptions in their cognition, including negative internal, stable, and global attributions of events, and greater memory of, negative stimuli. In addition, depressed adults show high levels of self-punishment and low levels of self-reinforcement and self-efficacy. Children of depressed mothers can be born with dysfunctional neural-regulatory mechanisms, brought on by abnormal fetal development caused internally by the mothers depression during pregnancy. Such abnormal developments are thought to be due the fetus exposure to neuroendocrine alterations, which are associated with depression, that may cause constricted blood flow to the fetus. So me abnormal fetal developments manifested at birth include tendencies to respond in a particular style or assume certain behavioral traits. Research suggests that we must examine certain aspects of the fetal environment that may correlate with depression in pregnant women. In particular, two factors may be possible mechanisms of this abnormal development: reduced blood flow to the fetus and poor health behaviors on the part of the mother. The first factor is reduced blood flow to the fetus. Studies show that in the third trimester of pregnancy, a maternal trait of anxiety is associated with impaired uterine blood flow. This decreased blood flow is associated with lower birth weights, and less fetal movement during pregnancy. Depression acts as a stressor, and maternal stress is related to increased fetal heart rate during pregnancy and low attention orientation and arousal for newborns. We are able to see that maternal depression d...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Ancient Egypts 1st Intermediate Period

Ancient Egypt's 1st Intermediate Period The 1st Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt began when the Old Kingdoms centralized monarchy grew weak as provincial rulers called nomarchs became powerful, and ended when the Theban monarch gained control of all Egypt. Dates of the 1st Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt 2160-2055 B.C. Herakleopolitan: 9th 10th Dynasties: 2160-2025Theban: 11th Dynasty: 2125-2055 The Old Kingdom is described as ending with the longest-reigning pharaoh in Egyptian history, Pepy II. After him, building projects in the cemeteries around the capital of Memphis stopped. Building resumed at the end of the 1st Intermediate Period, with Menhotep II at Deir el-Bahri in western Thebes. Characterization of the 1st Intermediate Period Egyptian intermediate periods are times when the centralized government weakened and rivals claimed the throne. The 1st Intermediate Period is often characterized as chaotic and miserable, with degraded art- a dark age. Barbara Bell* hypothesized that the 1st Intermediate period was brought about by a prolonged failure of the annual Nile floods, leading to famine and collapse of the monarchy. But it was not necessarily a dark age, even though there are bragging inscriptions about how local rulers were able to provide for their people in the face of great adversity. There is evidence of thriving culture and the development of towns. Non-royal people gained in status. Pottery changed shape to a more efficient use of the pottery wheel. The 1st Intermediate Period was also the setting for later philosophical texts. Burial Innovations During the 1st Intermediate Period, cartonnage was developed. Cartonnage is the word for the gypsum and linen colored mask that covered the face of a mummy. Earlier, only the elite had been buried with specialized funerary goods. During the 1st Intermediate Period, more people were buried with such specialized products. This indicates that the provincial areas could afford non-functional craftsmen, something that only the pharaonic capital had done before. Competing Kings Not much is known about the early part of the 1st Intermediate Period. By the second half of it, there were two competing nomes with their own monarchs. The Theban king, King Mentuhotep II, defeated his unknown Herakleapolitan rival in about 2040, putting an end to the 1st Intermediate Period. Herakleapolis Herakleopolis Magna or Nennisut, on the southern edge of the Faiyum, became the capital of area of the Delta and central Egypt. Manetho says the Herakleapolitan dynasty was founded by Khety. It may have had 18-19 kings. One of the last kings, Merykara, (c. 2025) was buried at the necropolis at Saqqara which is connected with the Old Kingdom kings ruling from Memphis. First Intermediate Period private monuments feature the civil war with Thebes. Thebes Thebes was the capital of southern Egypt. The ancestor of the Theban dynasty is Intef, a nomarch who was important enough to be inscribed on the walls of Thutmose IIIs chapel of royal ancestors. His brother, Intef II ruled for 50 years (2112-2063). Thebes developed a type of tomb known as a rock-tomb (saff-tomb) at the necropolis at el-Tarif. Sources: Bell, Barbara. The Dark Ages in Ancient History. I. The First Dark Age in Ancient Egypt. AJA 75:1-26.The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. by Ian Shaw. OUP 2000.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Poetry study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Poetry study - Essay Example The poem reflects the message from a lover who compares the girl he admires to a rose flower. If the flower does not expose its beauty to the people when it is still young, it will be long forgotten after it has withered down. The two poems point out to the same theme of the temporariness of life of an earth. Life on Earth is temporary and is bound to end at some point. In Ozymandias, the persona recalls having encountered a traveler from â€Å"an antique land† who narrated about a statue that was destroyed in his local country (Mikics Para. 1). The statue that had only two legs and the head that bore a face that was well sculptured to expose the moods of the statue. The emotions can still be observed even long after the sculptor and the subject had long been dead. On the pedestal of the statue was the words â€Å"My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings† and besides the lifeless statue was nothing but only â€Å"lone and level sands† (Poem Hunter). The poem appears to be a short, but rich story that is expressed in the words of a stranger. The poem signifies the pride of the kings as they call themselves â€Å"king of kings â€Å" and construct permanent works of art that last long after they are dead. Shelly seems to offer a criticism of the kings by ironically referring to their arrogance that is destroyed by the power of time. The main message is that life is not permanent and that even the pride of time is undermined by the ruinous power of time. Symbolism is one of the styles that Bysshe uses to add develop her message. One symbolic feature that the poet uses is the absence of the central body of the sculpture. Only the two concrete legs appear and a head placed beside the sculpture. The use of this image seems to refer to the loss of the king’s legacy after the ruinous time has taken past him. The implication of this is that time erodes all the aspects of a person and they fade away. The pride of the king as â€Å"king of kings † cannot outlast the works of art that they created (Brackett 190). The use of symbolism assists the poet to develop a perfect 14 lines sonnet while expressing her message within the short poem. On the other hand, Waller’s poem â€Å"Go, lovely Rose† features the words of flower bearer who intends to send with a message to a beautiful woman. Before sending the flower, he gives it a message concerning the beauty that she possesses. The flower should pass the information that she is a sweet and fair as the rose flower and that she is comparable to the same flower in all the aspects. She should come out and be desired rather than hide from the people. She should remain hidden like â€Å"In desert where no men abide† as at some point in her life she is going to wither like the flower. He says that â€Å"†¦ uncommented died† to signify the people who spent the short time they had in life and later died without ever being desired (Poetry Foundation). Waller’s message in this poem is that beauty is as temporary as life is and the only way to enjoy it is coming out to be admired by the people (Brackett 192). Symbolism is used here to compare the young girl and a flower that has a temporary beauty and will one day dry and be forgotten. The two poems point out to the same thing that life is never permanent and that people at some time are meant to leave the earth eventually. In the

Aspectual evaluation of IS in use Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Aspectual evaluation of IS in use - Essay Example This flash will be linked to several internet website e.g. YouTube for the users to have a video watch on how basketball is played. This also will save the user some money since it does not need to be bought. Champion basketball flash evaluation There are several users in the family who are subject to use the champion basketball flash and whom must be considered in the family. Unlike me being a professional basket baller, my wife is not a basketball fan; my oldest daughter loves games but plays tennis. However if may appear erroneous since my last born is a basket baller but is not a fan, consequently my second born son does not play basketball but is a good basketball fan. Physical aspect This is the relation to feelings of the user on this champion basketball flash which can be manipulated from one screen to another. A good example is when the user will feel happy and delighted by the presence of star players like tiger woods who is the best Basketball international player. This wi ll also bring excitement to the user especially when the team of stars are playing the game. These moments will make the user happy and make the champion basketball flash to be exciting. ... The main presentation is linked to the major and attractive sites visited in the internet to give the user the best videos and pictorials for the related game. This videos and games raise the user’s level of enjoyment, this games and videos in the internet are always updated and the user will have an access of the current sports only. Eventually some of this graphics are funny picture of the players that they like most and this makes the users happy and excited to use the champion basketball flashy. Consequently, this makes the young users to gain more interest in this game and hence helps the user to understand more about the game. Quantative aspect The user will not be able to see all the presentation in the same day as this is more than what human can take. This is as a result of videos and images which keep on updating and changing on a daily basis. In this context, the users will have to keep on revisiting the presentation to find what is new in the game. The navigation b etween screens on Basketball playing and its relations to different players, fields and different countries is more complex and this will take time to cover. World records keep on being broken and this will make the presentation change on the player’s information part leading to an update of a new record with a new player. This wills make the users to revisit a certain careen when a new record is set. Also my daughter like watching something twice for a deep understanding and this will make her revisit the screens and this will consume time, my sons well likes watching videos and thus videos watching will consume a lot of time in order for one to have a good understanding. Moral aspect In any application developed, on has to consider its ethical implications and values. In this

Friday, October 18, 2019

The Plan for a Workplace Negotiation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

The Plan for a Workplace Negotiation - Essay Example The most important issue For the diary products company, it is necessary to negotiate about the hour roster which including implications for shifts and for overtime. There are some inevitable reasons and situations result in company have to change worker's rosters or hours. For example, different season may have different demand, such as demand of ice-cream is higher in summer. Then company may require more workers work overtime in this period to increase the output of products. However, the number of workers work overtime can affect the profit of organisation because of the large expense of overtime pay. In fact, managers should reduce expenses as much as possible to reach the maximum profit of company. Besides that financial disadvantage to workers having to change rosters or hours to be kept to a minimum but some workers will earn less on the new rosters because there will be less regular overtime. Financial disadvantage will affect worker's dissatisfaction on company and will dir ectly affect their work efficiency and quality of work. (Peddle, 2008) Therefore, how to balance workers work overtime and worker's financial advantage is a critical problem that should be considered by manager. The least important issue The least important issue is the duration of the agreement. It could be less important compare to other issues. For example, it might have some contingency problems occur when the agreement have fulfilled during the course such as union may want to get some more benefit for labours. It can directly lead the labour cost change and determine the agreement duration. Then it will have the new agreement replaced the original. It realised that the agreement duration is the least important issue among others. Therefore, it can not settled the duration of the agreement can be existed for 2 years. Overall strategy might be adopt The strategy will be adopt here is the cooperative strategy which is the integrative bargaining. Integrative bargaining is to to fi nd common or complementary interests and to solve problems confronting both parties.It is aim to maximize joint benefits and reconcile interests and solve problems.(Walton & McKersie (1965) The reason to use this strategy is to establish long-term relationship between company and employees. It is an important element to achieve company goal. As it mentioned before, company leave out employee's financial disadvantage of account can result in dissatisfaction of employees, it leads a high staff turnover and negative impacts for company. The dairy company should assume several ways to achieve win-win agreement. Negotiator can directly take aim at primal problems through avoid some less important problems during negotiating. ( Bazerman, Magliozzi & Neale, 1985) Then managers need to used the integrative bargaining strategic in proper phases of negotiation process. Rojot summarised three main phases of negotiation which are beginning phase, middle phase and end phase.(1990) The integrativ e bargaining strategy will be adopted in the beginning phase. The first reason to adopt the strategy in this phase is the aim of company to use the integrative bargaining strategy to build long-term relationship with employees. In the beginning phase, the first meeting will be held. However, negotiating parties are stand on opposite position because each of the party wants to gain their ends and they may not trust each other. Therefore, to build trust in the first phase is a necessary precondition to build

To what extent advertising affects women Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

To what extent advertising affects women - Essay Example In a more specific term, the paper will critically analyze the effects of advertisement to the female or women audience relative to the use of sex, female models, women as sex objects and the superwoman. Before examining the effects of advertisements to the female audience, it is important to have an overview on what is advertising. In brief, advertising is the tool used to promote a product or a service to the intended market or audience. Advertisements are used to draw the attention of the consumers and prospect market and highlight the importance or the characteristics of the product or service. In the earlier years of advertising, barbershops used strips of red, white, and blue to advertise their services. However, due to the enhancement of technology, many had used every medium platform to advertise. Today, advertising has many forms which come from print to multimedia, and down to social networking websites (Petley 4). In relation to the term gender role, it is defined as the norms of a certain culture that is associated with the male and female. Therefore, in order for advertisements to be effective in a certain culture, advertisers must learn the past, the origin, and the current gender roles of the target audience. In certain societies, men and women have lesser differences; however, there are also societies where the masculine values are considered higher than the feminine values. Nonetheless, according to McArthur and Resk, in most of the cultures, gender roles differ in six major aspects, which include credibility, role, location, persuasive arguments, rewards and product type (qtd. in Ifezue 15). Credibility differs among men and women in most cultures because men are considered more authoritative than women. This can be supplemented by independent roles that man portrays, while women portray roles that are dependent on their relationships with other people. Due to the authority of men,

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Womens Attitudes towards Online Shopping Dissertation

Womens Attitudes towards Online Shopping - Dissertation Example This essay discusses that women are traditionally responsible for household shopping. And according to several studies, shopping is a task more preferred by women and they express more favourable attitudes towards catalogue shopping and ‘brick-and-mortar’ store than men. Nevertheless, the innovative shopping medium presented by the Internet has been discovered to lead to an unusual, if not reverse, buying behaviour between women and men. Even though some studies have discovered that there is no significant disparity between non-shoppers and online shoppers as regards to gender, males were discovered to buy more online than females. According to Alreck and Settle, the attitudes of men towards online shopping were roughly similar to or even more positive than females’ perceptions. The Internet was previously designed mostly for men and for a purposeful assessment intended for the product information and price comparison. In the recent decades online shopping has tur ned out to be more pleasant, with customer evaluations and testimonials and a richer array of products/services and online experience. This development has encouraged women, as well. Furthermore, it appears that most people no longer find any considerable shortcomings of online shopping. A decade ago people were in the habit of worrying about the safety or trustworthiness of making payments online and the guarantee of delivery. These issues are no longer a problem today, with innovative means like secure online money transfers and a record of encouraging experiences (Park & Stoel 2002). As stated by Khosrowpour (2004), the progress of online shopping is distinguished by the finding that people have been allotting much more time for online activities since 1998. In general, there are dissimilarities between the buying behaviour of men and women. Women would prefer, more than men, to look for relevant information on products/services and to be encouraged; this is the same behaviour ob served in traditional shopping. Men would prefer to decide quickly. It is the shopping

Thinking Skills and General Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Thinking Skills and General Management - Essay Example The four functions are used to apply on the resources of the organization. Compared with the contemporary age, as the development of new technologies, management are facing new problems on an everyday basis now, four functions of management are inter-related in some manners. Management applies to all levels within an organization. Managers can be classified by their level of responsibility and their functions. The junior manager usually is a supervisor or team leader. They work at the operational level and are expected to coordinate employees. Junior managers make sure the quality level of work is appropriate and may be expected to fill in when an employee is absent. Middle managers are usually sales, marketing and finance managers. Middle managers are responsible for junior managers and report to senior management. They spend longer on management functions compared with junior managers. Senior managers are the executives in the highest level of the organization they responsible for the overall direction and coordination of the organization objectives. Functional management is found in large organizations where specialist managers or expertise is required. Functional managers are usually concerned with a few tasks. Examples of this would be a human resource manager who is only concerned with staffing activities. Managers responsible for the all the activities in the organization can be considered as line managers. (Hannaghan, 110-13) They are involved in most of the organizational functions such as finance, production, human-relations and marketing. Line managers are usually found in smaller organizations such as factories and shops. "Planning is the management function that involves the process of defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving those goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities"(Robbins et al 219-25). It delivers strategic value, which is an

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Womens Attitudes towards Online Shopping Dissertation

Womens Attitudes towards Online Shopping - Dissertation Example This essay discusses that women are traditionally responsible for household shopping. And according to several studies, shopping is a task more preferred by women and they express more favourable attitudes towards catalogue shopping and ‘brick-and-mortar’ store than men. Nevertheless, the innovative shopping medium presented by the Internet has been discovered to lead to an unusual, if not reverse, buying behaviour between women and men. Even though some studies have discovered that there is no significant disparity between non-shoppers and online shoppers as regards to gender, males were discovered to buy more online than females. According to Alreck and Settle, the attitudes of men towards online shopping were roughly similar to or even more positive than females’ perceptions. The Internet was previously designed mostly for men and for a purposeful assessment intended for the product information and price comparison. In the recent decades online shopping has tur ned out to be more pleasant, with customer evaluations and testimonials and a richer array of products/services and online experience. This development has encouraged women, as well. Furthermore, it appears that most people no longer find any considerable shortcomings of online shopping. A decade ago people were in the habit of worrying about the safety or trustworthiness of making payments online and the guarantee of delivery. These issues are no longer a problem today, with innovative means like secure online money transfers and a record of encouraging experiences (Park & Stoel 2002). As stated by Khosrowpour (2004), the progress of online shopping is distinguished by the finding that people have been allotting much more time for online activities since 1998. In general, there are dissimilarities between the buying behaviour of men and women. Women would prefer, more than men, to look for relevant information on products/services and to be encouraged; this is the same behaviour ob served in traditional shopping. Men would prefer to decide quickly. It is the shopping

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Banking finance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Banking finance - Essay Example /

Monday, October 14, 2019

Summary of Mortal Engines Essay Example for Free

Summary of Mortal Engines Essay The book begins by introducing the very lovable main charcter who the story is told by, Tom natsworthy, he is a 13 year old boy who works in the historians guild aboard london a large city that has been put on masssive wheels and now roams about what is called the hunting grounds in search of prey. He is what is called a tractionist these are poeple that after a catacylsmic war that completed decimated the planets population and created massive tracks ofunhabitable landscapes, devolped the technology to make thier cities mobile in order to maneuver the terrain. Their is still an ongoing war between the two factions, the tractionists who believe in Darwism and survival of the fittest and the anti-tracionists who believe in cites being stationary. The story follows the dramatic events that take a scholarly boy out of his sheltered setting at a museum and thrusts him into a world of anti-tracionists, air pirates, and reserected humans turned into mechanical monsters. Tom is in strong contrast to the characters around him, including another main character hester, an anti tracionist whos father abonded her and mother who was killed in front of her when she was just five and since then has become a untrusting and cut throat killer, these two unlikely companions are forced to work together to survive when they are both stranded in barren wastelands.These contrasting characters examplify themes that thread through this book, those of mechanical and organic, the ancient and modern, good and evil. despite their releationship with eachother Tom and Hester were raised to have completly diffrent philisophical views of the world but are able to eventually grow to accept one anothers idoelogies through the experinces and hardships they go through together. It was a dark, blustery afernoon in spring, and the city of London was chasing a small mining town across the dried-otu bed of the old North Sea. in happier times, London would have never bothered with such feeble prey. The great Traction City had once spent its days huntign far bigger towns than this This quote illustrates the dog eat dog world this book is set in and is an example of a reoccuring theme that is thread throughout the book, the contrast between mechanical and organic. The poeple in the book are graced with advanced technology that we could only dream of, yet they use it in such a primal way. They somehow have reverted to primative ways and use their collussul creations to hunt one another even to the exstent that they refer to cities as if they were living creatures. The tone is both dark and medevil withe the anger of conflict and war permiating this science fiction scenario. An attraction and strength of this book is the invetive settings and originality of the cultures and characters that inhabit the story. It is a vivid and invetive steam punk book that melds science fitcion and the future with so many elements that are familair from the past with deep thought provking ideas. The description of the landscapes interoir and exteroir the detailed inventions and the gripping plot hold the readers attention and leave you anticipating were the story will go next.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The Integumentary Organ System Biology Essay

The Integumentary Organ System Biology Essay The integumentary system is the organ system that is made up of the skin, which can be hair, feather, nails, and scales. The integumentary system is vital to an organism because it acts as a shield and protects the organism from the outside environment like the weather, infectious organisms and acts as an touch and pain receptor. The integumentary system consists of three layers: the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis. The integumentary system is different for the four dissection animals. The earthworm has a moist, lubricated body to help it burrow through the earth. The crayfish has a hard exoskeleton, which really very different integumentary system than the other organisms, to protect itself from sharp objects and other predators. The grass frog has skin, which is waterproof to avoid water loss and dehydration. Lastly, the white rat has a short length of fur on the epidermis to aid it in maintaining homeostasis by regulating temperature. The advantages of these varieties in the organisms depend on the environment they live in. For example, the grass frog has a moist waterproof layer of skin because it lives in a wet habitat such as a pond or lake. This allows it to move in the water and come up on dry land if needed. The skin allows enough water to osmose into and hydrate the body but keeps excess water out. Some disadvantages of moist skins are that organisms will need to stay near sources of water or else they will get dehydrated and die. The earthworm who lives underground relies on its moist skin to be able to move through the soil. It also has the ability to create lubricating liquid which helps it move. An advantage it has is because its segmented, it is very flexible. However, the disadvantage is its size. Because the earthworm is so small and has little to no protection because of its thin layer of skin, it can easily be crushed by other animals. The crayfish relies on its hard exoskeleton shell for protectio n. It has tiny little hairs on its legs that can sense movements in the water. The disadvantage of the crayfish is that once the shell is gone, it will be exposed to danger and easily killed. The rat with its fur on top of a thin layer of skin can keep warm. It has whiskers on its snout and nails on its feet and the tail has rough hardened skin. A disadvantage could be wet fur can lower its body temperature. Also, with mouse traps like sticky ones, it can trap the rat because of its fur. As evolution made changes, it required new forms of integumentary systems. The first forms of animals which were fish were cold-blooded and up to the reptiles, they all had either scales or moist skin. As the earliest animals, they lived in the water and their scales confined them to the water. The amphibians lived mostly on water but were able to come up to dry land but not for long. The first class of animals that were warm-blooded are birds. They needed a way to keep a temperature that is at their homeostatic level so they have feathers. This helped them keep warm and also allowed them to fly. In mammals, which are also warm-blooded, have fur or hair. This allows them to keep warm and maintain homeostasis. The disadvantages of furred animals are if there is a sudden change in weather like a heat wave, then thickly furred animals will die from the heat. The integumentary system is a vital part of an organism which has its advantages and disadvantages depending on its environment. Muscle and Skeletal System The muscle system is the organ system which allows an organism to move. In vertebrates, the muscle system is controlled by the nervous system. There are three types of muscles which are: skeletal, cardiac, and heart muscles. The muscle system is very important to an organism because it provides strength, posture, and the ability to move for an organism. The skeletal system is the reason why an animal has its form and shape. It also acts as a protective cage for all the important and vital organs in the body. Also, it allows organisms to move the way they do. There are three different kinds of skeletons. The first one is an endoskeleton. An animal with an endoskeleton has a skeleton inside its body like a human being. The second is an exoskeleton, which occurs in animals like crabs. Last is a hydro skeleton, where there isnt really a skeleton but is a fluid-filled cavity. In our dissection animals, we can see that there are many differences in the animals muscle and skeletal system. The worm has a hydro skeleton body and it relies on its muscles to be able to move around by using muscular contraction. The worm has an advantage because it has a hydro skeleton which allows it to be very flexible. Evolution probably played a role in giving the earthworm an amazing ability. It has the power to regenerate lost segments in its body. It has great anabolic capabilities in its muscles, and in any case that it loses a couple of segments, then it can just regenerate it back. This can make up for its weak skeleton. Its disadvantages are it can easily be crushed because of its weak skeleton. In the crayfish, it has a exoskeleton which gives it good protection. Evolution played a role in making them have hard exoskeletons to survive in competitive waters. Also, because it has an exoskeleton it is an advantage and disadvantage. With its exoskeleton it has better pro tection but when it molts, it will be at its most vulnerable to predators and danger. The crayfish is divided into two segments: which are the abdomen and cephalothorax. It relies on its muscles in its eight legs used for moving around and a pair of strong pincers for getting food, attacking and defending itself. Also, it has a tail which is used to propel itself forward. The frog has a endoskeleton. It has long hind legs that allow to them to leap, jump, and swim away from danger. I believe that evolution has made frogs have strong powerful legs. Its long femur and powerful femur and tibias play a role in their survival. Last but not least, there is the rat which has a endoskeleton. The rat is similar to the frog but has smaller arm and leg bones and muscles. The rat relies on strong incisors and muscles for gnawing. Evolution played a role in rats because they must adapt to their food source. Therefore, they must have incisors which are accustomed to their food source. One last thing is the differences between invertebrates and vertebrates. Invertebrates are animals which have no back bone and vertebrates do. The worm and crayfish are invertebrates while the frog and rat are vertebrates. The muscle and skeletal system are important to organisms because they give them their form and shape and the ability to move. Also those two systems help them survive in their environments. Digestive System In all animals, the digestive system is an important system that breaks eaten food down into small enough pieces in order to diffuse into the cell and make feces as a way to get rid of the waste from digestion. This system is made up of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and the small and large intestine, rectum, and lastly the anus. Starting at the mouth when you smell the good food, your mouth will release an enzyme called salivary amylase that will lubricate the food so it will be able to go down the esophagus. After chewing and the food is drenched in the amylase, it will go down the esophagus. The esophagus is the tube like structure leading from the mouth to the stomach. The stomach is the organ that stores food, contains catabolic enzymes and produces acid to break down the food, and is responsible for killing microbes in the food we eat. When it leaves the stomach, the food would be in a liquid form and be able to enter the small intestine. There, the small intestine will finish the digestion process started by the stomach and further break the food down by the catabolic enzymes. Once the food is broken down into either disaccharides, fats, nucleic acids, or any smaller form, it will be absorbed and enter the blood stream straight into the cells to be used as energy. In the large intestine, any unabsorbed food, waste material, will be formed into feces. Also, it will reabsorb water and help create new good bacteria. Lastly, the feces will exit the body by the rectum, then out the anus into the environment. In the earthworm, we see a difference in the digestive system. It has a mouth, esophagus, but a crop and gizzard. The crop is where the swallowed food are stored. The gizzard is where all the food are broken down. Because the earthworm has no teeth, it uses rocks that were swallowed and its strong muscles to break down the food. It goes through the rest of the digestive process and the feces exit through the anus. For the crayfish, it uses its mandible and maxillas to take food in. It goes through the esophagus and into the stomach. The crayfish stomach is specialized to grind food up to be digested. It goes through the intestines, rectum, and lastly, out through the anus. In the frog, its long tongue snatches prey into its mouth, however it has weak maxillary teeth. It has the same digestive organs. The rat, has the same digestive organs as the frog. However, the liver is the largest organ in the rat. I believe for the rat, evolution made the rats liver larger because as rats became situated in the industrial and urbanized environment, it had to adapt to the new food sources, like trash and dirty food. Therefore, the liver became important in order for the rat to safely eat the food and not get intoxicated or sick. The digestive system is important to organisms because without them, there would be no way for them to survive as they wont be able to provide nutrients and energy to their cells. Respiratory System The respiratory system is the system in animals which is responsible for bringing in fresh oxygen to the lungs and to breathe out carbon dioxide. This system is made up of the nose, mouth, trachea, bronchi, lungs and diaphragm. In fishes they contain gills, and in some organisms, they do not have any respiratory organs and use the skin to take in oxygen. When animals breath in, oxygen would go into the nose then mouth. The air travels down the trachea and then into either the left or right bronchi then into the bronchiole tubes, which then leads into the lungs. The oxygen would then fill up tiny sacs called alveoli. As blood flows through the capillaries, oxygen will then diffuse into the blood, and carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveoli and travel out the respiratory system. In our dissection animals, we see a variety of differences. In the earthworm, it does not possess any form of respiratory organs. It only takes in oxygen through the skin and in return expels carbon dioxide with the same method. In the crayfish, its gills are responsible for getting oxygen. Gills act as filters that pushes water out and trap the oxygen from the water. The oxygen is then able to diffuse into the bloodstream and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. For the grass frog, it works the same way as the earthworm. However, in its early stages of life which is being a tadpole, it has gills. In its adult stage, it will be able to use its lungs and also take in oxygen by absorbing oxygen through its skin. In the rat, it is similar to a human being. It will breathe in oxygen through its nose then go into the trachea, bronchi, bronchiole tube, into the lungs, in the alveoli, exchange gases, then the CO2 will exit out the system. The differences in organs can relate to evolution. For example, when the frog evolved into its amphibious state, it needed to be able to breathe on land. Therefore, it went from gills, to lungs when it morphed into its adult stage. I dont think the earthworm and crayfish had any minor changes in their system because they have been on this planet for a long time and their environments do not require them to have any adaptations. Therefore, the respiratory system is a vital system to organisms because they are responsible for taking and exchanging the gases oxygen and carbon dioxide in our body. Circulatory System The circulatory system is responsible for circulating oxygenated blood throughout the body. The heart is the main organ which is responsible for this, and is also the second most vital organ in the body. The process of which blood travels throughout the body is first entering the right atrium, then down into the right ventricle, then into the lungs. As oxygen diffuses into the un-oxygenated blood by passing the alveoli, it travels back into the left atrium and down the left ventricle then out into the aorta for the whole body. In our dissection animals there are many differences in their circulatory system. The earthworm has five hearts in total. It has long blood vessels to carry blood throughout its body. In the crayfish, it only has one heart and is a two chambered heart. Blood vessels also bring blood throughout its body. In the frog, it has one heart and has three chambers. Blood vessels and arteries bring the blood throughout the body. Lastly, the white rat has one heart and is a four chambered heart. Blood vessels and arteries carry the blood throughout the body. The advantages of the different chambered hearts are that the more chambers there are, the more oxygen will be available to the blood. The disadvantages are there is less oxygen available for the blood to carry; for example, the frog has a three chambered heart. In the ventricle, the oxygenated and un-oxygenated blood will get mixed and therefore, carry less oxygen. I think that evolution played a role in evolving the organisms hearts, because animals like the rat that require quick movement, needs more than two chambers to provide sufficient oxygen throughout the body to function at its best. In conclusion, the circulatory is a vital organ in an organism which provides oxygenated blood throughout the body.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Corruption and Failure in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby :: Great Gatsby Essays

Corruption in The Great Gatsby      Ã‚   The theme of human corruption, its sources and consequences, is a common concern among writers from Shakespeare through J.D Salinger. Some suggest that it attacks from outside, while others depict corruption occurring from within the individual. In the case if The Great Gatsby and it's protagonist's fate, Fitzgerald shows both factors at work. The moral climate of the Roaring Twenties, Daisy Fay Buchanan's pernicious hold on him, and Jay Gatsby's own nature all contribute to his tragic demise.      Ã‚  Ã‚   First, the loose morality of Dan Cody, Gatsby's unfortunate role model, and superficial people who flock to Gatsby's parties contribute to Gatsby's downfall. Their examples encourages Gatsby's interpretation of The American Dream- his naive belief is that money and social standing are all that matter in his quest for Daisy. The self-absorbed debetants and their drunken escorts are among those who "crash" his extravagant soirees. As Nick Carroway tells us, "People were not invited- they went there." (pg.40) Shallow, corrupt people like Jordan Baker gossip with reckless abandon about their mysterious host. Their careless, superficial attitudes and wanton behavior represent Fitzgerald's depiction of the corrupt American Dream.      Ã‚   Another force of corruption responsible for Gatsby's fate is his obsession with a woman of Daisy's nature. Determined to marry her after returning from the war, he is blind to her shallow, cowardly nature. He is unable to see the corruption which lies beyond her physical beauty, charming manner and playful banter. That she is incapable of leaving her brutal husband, Tom, of committing herself to Gatsby despite his sacrifices escapes him. As Nick observes, Gatsby's expectation is absurdly simple:"He only wanted her to tell him [Tom] that she never loved him." (pg.91) Daisy is not worthy of the pedestal on which she is placed. Since she is hallow at the core, so is his dream which is based on a brief flirtation, nothing more.      Ã‚   Finally, Gatsby's own character-especially his willful obsession-contributes to his fate. Despite his naivetà © about Daisy and her friends who "are rich and play polo together," he, too, has been seduced by the lure of money and fame. Unable to control his obsessive desire to have Daisy, he cares little about the

Friday, October 11, 2019

Museum of Modern Art Essay

â€Å"The agenda for museums in the twenty-first century† by Harold Skramstad is concentrated on the historical aspects of the museums in the United States. He notices that museums were the great success of the American public education on the nineteenth century. During the twenty century museums stayed the important part of cultural landscape, and nowadays the concept of museums as the form of education is in demand. However, the social opinion considers museum as a passive and informal kind of education, and this issue needs correction, The chapter 16 â€Å"Museum Exhibitions and the dynamics of dialogue† by Kathleen Maclean is the attempt to analyze the role of the museums as the civic institutions and the contribution of exhibition, especially the temporary. The author mentioned the evolution of the very concept of museum, noticing the small facts, for example, the days when museum is closed, as the sign of class orientation, and mentioned that last time the museums became more democratic by their nature, Nowadays museums are ready for the dialogue with their visitors. At the very end on the chapter author mentioned that the number of museums constantly increases, unlike the number of money available for them. For this reason every curator of the museum should clearly understand the task of the museum in general and every exhibition in particular. It is necessary to understand the needs of museum visitors and their ability to understand and to learn in the museum. The excellent example of the museum with the definite task is the Museum of Modern Art.

Thursday, October 10, 2019


Review Article Indian J Med Res 134, October 2011, pp 552-560 Invasive & non-invasive approaches for prenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies: Experiences from India R. B. Colah, A. C. Gorakshakar & A. H. Nadkarni National Institute of Immunohaematology (ICMR), Mumbai, India Received October 29, 2010 The thalassaemias and sickle cell disease are the commonest monogenic disorders in India. There are an estimated 7500 – 12,000 babies with ? -thalassaemia major born every year in the country. While the overall prevalence of carriers in different States varies from 1. to 4 per cent, recent work has shown considerable variations in frequencies even within States. Thus, micromapping would help to determine the true burden of the disease. Although screening in antenatal clinics is being done at many centres, only 15-20 per cent of pregnant women register in antenatal clinics in public hospitals in the first trimester of pregnancy. There are only a handful of centres in major cities in this vast country where prenatal diagnosis is done. There is considerable molecular heterogeneity with 64 mutations identified, of which 6 to 7 common mutations account for 80-90 per cent of mutant alleles. First trimester foetal diagnosis is done by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and DNA analysis using reverse dot blot hybridization, amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and DNA sequencing. Second trimester diagnosis is done by cordocentesis and foetal blood analysis on HPLC at a few centres. Our experience on prenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies in 2221 pregnancies has shown that >90 per cent of couples were referred for prenatal diagnosis of ? -thalassaemia after having one or more affected children while about 35 per cent of couples were referred for prenatal diagnosis of sickle cell disorders prospectively. There is a clear need for more data from India on non-invasive approaches for prenatal diagnosis. Key words Haemoglobinopathies – India – invasive and non-invasive approaches – prenatal diagnosis Introduction The inherited disorders of haemoglobin are the most common monogenic disorders globally. Around 7 per cent of the population worldwide are carriers with more than 3,00,000 severely affected babies born every year1. Prenatal diagnosis is an integral component of a community control programme for haemoglobinopathies. Estimating the disease burden, generating awareness in the population, screening 552 o identify carriers and couples at – risk and genetic counselling are prerequisites for a successful prevention programme. The remarkable success of such programmes in the 1970s in Cyprus, Italy, Greece and the UK led to the development of control programmes in many other countries2-6. The extent of the problem in India ? -thalassaemia has been reported in most of the communities that have been screened so far in India. While the overall prevalence varies from 1. 5 to 4 per COLAH et al: PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF HAEMOGLOBINOPATHIES IN INDIA 553 ent in different States, communities like Sindhis, Punjabis, Lohanas, Kutchi Bhanushalis, Jains and Bohris have a higher prevalence (4-17%)7-12. Different reportshaveestimatedthat7500-12,000? -thalassaemia major babies would be born in India each year12 -14. It has also been shown recently by micromapping at the district level in two States, Maharashtra and Gujarat in westernIndiathattheprevalenceof? -thalassaemiatrait in different districts within these States is variable (0 9. 5%). Based on these estimates there would be around 1000birthsof? thalassaemiamajorbabieseachyear in these two States alone15. Thus, such data should be obtained from different States to know the true burden of the disease and for planning and executing control programmes. Haemoglobin S (Hb S) is prevalent in central India and among the tribal belts in western, eastern and southern India, the carrier rates varying from 1-40 per cent16-18. It has been estimated that over 5000 babies with sickle cell disease would be born each year19. Haemoglobin E is widespread in the north eastern States in Assam, Mizoram, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh and Tripura, the prevalence of Hb E trait being highest (64%) among the Bodo-Kacharis in Assam and going up to 30-40 per cent in some other populations in this region20-22. In eastern India the prevalence of Hb E trait varies from 3-10 per cent in West Bengal8,23. Both Hb E andHbSwhenco-inheritedwith? -thalassaemiaresult in a disorder of variable clinical severity24-26. These inherited haemoglobin disorders cause considerable pain and suffering to the patients and their families and are a major drain on health resources in the country. The need for accurate identification of carries and couples at risk Classical ? thalassaemia carriers have typically reduced red cell indices [mean corpuscular volume (MCV)T) ? + 3. -87 (C>T) ? + 4. -80 (C>T) ? + 5. -29 (A>G) ? + 6. -28 (A>G) ? + 7. -25 (A>G) ? + B. Cap site 1. +1 (A>C) ? + C. Initiation codon 1. ATG > ACG ? 0 D. RNA processing mutations i) Splice junction site 1. Codon 30 (G>C) ? 0 2. Codon 30 (G>A) ? 0 3. IVS 1-1 (G>T) ? 0 4. IVS 1-1 (G>A) ? 0 5. IVS 1-129 (A>C) ? 0 6. IVS 1-130 (G>C) ? 0 7. IVS 1-130 (G>A) ? 0 8. IVS II-1 (G>A) ? 0 (ii) Consensus site 1. IVS 1-5 (G>C) ? + 2. IVS 1-128 (TAG > GAG) ? + 3. IVS II-837 (T>G) ? (iii) IVS changes 1. IVS I-110 (G>A) ? + 2. IVS II-591 (T>C) ? + 3. IVS II-613 (C>T) ? + 4. IVS II-654 (C>T) ? + 5. IVS II-745 (C>G) ? + iv) Coding region changes 1. Codon 26 (G>A) Hb E ? + E. RNA translational mutations i) Nonsense 1. Codons 4,5,6 (ACT CCT GAG> ACA TCT ? 0 TAG) 2. Codon 5 (-CT), Codon 13 (C>T), Codon 26 ? (G>C), Codons 27/28 (+C) in cis 3. Codon 6 (GAG > TAG) and on the same ? 0 chromosome Codon 4 (ACT> ACA) , Codon 5 (CCT>TCT) 4. Codon 8 (A>G) ? 5. Codon 13 (C>T), Codon 26 (G>A), Codons ? 27/28 (-C) in cis 6. Codon 15 (TGG > TAG) ? 0 7. Codons 62-64 (7 bp del) ? 0 8. Codons 81-87 (22 bp del) ? 9. Codon 121 (G>T) ? 0 Contd†¦. themselves, today their relatives and extended families are coming forward to get screened38. There is only one centre in Lucknow in north India which offers a formal course for genetic counsellors and there is a need for more such courses throughout the country. Counsellors should be aware that couples at risk of havingachildwith? -thalassaemiamajor,sicklecel l disease, Hb S ? -thalassaemia, Hb E ? -thalassaemia, – ? -thalassaemia, Hb Lepore ? -thalassaemia and Hb SD disease should be given the option of prenatal diagnosis to avoid the birth of a child with a severe disorder. However, couples at risk of having a child with Hb D disease, Hb D ? -thalassaemia and Hb E disease do not require prenatal diagnosis as these disorders are mild. InSardinia,identificationofthemaximumnumber of carriers followed by effective genetic counselling helpedtoreducethebirthrateof? -thalassaemiamajor babies from 1:250 to 1:400039. Prenatal diagnosis The first initiatives in India Facilities for prenatal diagnosis became available in India in the mid 1980s40. Until then, although prenatal diagnosis was offered by a few centres, foetal samples were sent to the UK and other countries for analysis. Foetal blood sampling by foetoscopy done between 18 and 22 wk gestation and diagnosis by globin chain synthesis were done for the next 4 to 5 years at 2 centres in Mumbai40,41. Chorionic villus sampling and DNA analysis in the first trimester In the 1990s first trimester foetal diagnosis by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and DNA analysis was established at 4-5 centres in the north in Delhi42, in the west in Mumbai41,43,44 and in the south in Vellore45. These services then expanded to other cities like Lucknow and Chandigarh in the north46,47, and Kolkata in the east48. However, these services are still limited to major cities where couples are referred to or CVS samples are sent from surrounding areas. Molecular analysis ? -thalassaemia is extremely heterogeneous with more than 200 mutations described worldwide49. In India, about 64 mutations have been characterized by studies done at different centres30,31,49-51 (Table I). Six to seven mutations [IVS 1-5 (G? C), 619 bp deletion, IVS 1-1 (G? T), Codon 8/9 (+G), Codons 41/42 (-CTTT), COLAH et al: PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF HAEMOGLOBINOPATHIES IN INDIA (ii) Frameshift 1. Codon 5 (-CT) 2. Codons 7/8 (+G) 3. Codon 8 (-AA) 4. Codons 8/9(+G) 5. Codon 13 (C>T) 6. Codon 15 (-T) 7. Codon 16 (-C) 8. Codon 16 (C>T) 9. Codon 17 (A>T) 10. Codons 22-24 (7 bp del) 11. Codon 26 (G>T) 12. Codon 35 (A>G) 13. Codons 36/37 (-T) 14. Codons 36-39 (8 bp del) 15. Codon 39 (C>T) 16. Codon 44 (-C) 17. Codons 47/48 (+ATCT) 18. Codon 55 (+A) 19. Codon 55 (-A) 20. Codons 57/58 (+A) 21. Codon 88 (+T) 22. Codons 106/107 (+G) 23. Codon 110 (T>C) 24. Codon 111 (-G) 25. Codon 135 (C>T) F. RNA cleavage and polyadenylation mutation 1. AATAAA>AACAAA G. Deletional mutations 1. 619 bp deletion; 3’end 2. 10. 3 kb deletion 3. Codons 126-131 (17 bp deletion) Source: Refs 30, 31, 49-51 55 ?0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? + ? 0 ? + ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 Fig. 1. Regionaldistributionof? -thalassaemiamutationinIndia. molecular techniques like covalent reverse dot blot hybridization (CRDB), amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and DNA sequencing43,44 ,52. Foetal blood analysis in the second trimester Most of the prenatal diagnosis programmes in the Mediterranean countries started with second trimester foetal blood analysis but they were able to switch over tofirsttrimesterdiagnosisinashortspan5,39. In India, second trimester diagnosis is still done as manycouplesatriskareidentifiedlateduringpregnancy. Foetal blood sampling is done by cordocentesis at 18 to20wkgestationandafterconfirmingthatthereisno maternal contamination in the foetal sample by foetal cell staining using the Kleihauer-Betke method, it is analysed by HPLC on the Variant Hemoglobin Testing System (Bio Rad Laboratories, Hercules, USA). The HbA levels in foetuses affected with ? -thalassaemia major have ranged from 0 to 0. 5 per cent and these were distinguishable from heterozygous babies where the Hb A levels were >1. per cent in different studies. However, there was some overlap in Hb A levels between heterozygotes and normals53-55. Sickle cell disease and Hb E thalassaemia have also been diagnosed in this way. On the other hand, experience in Thailand showed that while ? 0 thalassaemia homozygotes and HbE-? 0 thalassaemia compound heterozygotes could be diagnosed by HPLC analysis of foetal blood, ? ++ thalassae mia homozygotes may be misdiagnosed as heterozygotes56. Amniotic fluid cells have not been used extensively in India for prenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies. Codon 15 (G? A), Codon 30 (G? C)] are common accounting for 85-95 per cent of mutant alleles. However, regional differences in their frequencies have been noted30,31,50,51 (Fig. 1). The prevalence of IVS 1 -5 (G? C), the most common mutation in India varies from 15-88 per cent in different States. Codon 15 (G? A) is the second most frequent mutation in Maharashtra and Karnataka and Codon 5 (-CT) is the third most common mutation in Gujarat. The -88 (C? T) and the Cap site +1 (A? C) mutations are more common in the northern region30,31,50. The 619 bp deletion is the most common mutation among the immigrant population from Pakistan. This knowledge on the distribution of mutations in different regions and in people of different ethnic backgrounds has facilitated prenatal diagnosis using 556 INDIAN J MED RES, OCTOBER 2011 Experience at National Institute Immunohaematology (NIIH), Mumbai of Bothfirstandsecondtrimesterprenataldiagnosis for the ? -thalassaemias and sickle cell disorders are done at National Institute of Immunohaematology, Mumbai, and over the last 25 years 2,221 pregnancies at risk have been investigated (Table II). 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Eur J Obstet Gynecol Repord Biol 2008; 140 : 17-20. 73. Li Y, Di Naro E, Vitucci A, Grill S, Ahong XY, Holzgreve W, et al. Size fractionation of cell free DNA in maternal plasma improves the detection of a paternally inherited 74. 75. 76. 77. Reprint requests: Dr Roshan Colah, Scientist F, National Institute of Immunohaematology (ICMR), 13th Floor, NMS Bldg, KEM Hospital Campus, Parel, Mumbai 400 012, India e-mail: [email  protected] com