Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Assess the View on Whether or Not Roles in Relationships

H/W Assess the view that roles and relations among couples are becoming more equal (24 Marks) Numerous sociologists have suggested that a large number of relationships are now becoming more symmetrical in compare to the traditional families looking back 40, 100, 200 years ago. They say that the traditional male and female roles are no longer as they were before, it has all fallen apart, and hence relationships have been becoming more equal. Some sociologists such as Wilmot and Young argue that in symmetrical families, normal domestic duties are most likely to be shared by both parties and they are both very likely to be working.Thus it all undoes the tradition of the past in which a woman would care for the children and the home, and the man being the ‘breadwinner’ would head out and work. Some sociologists also argue that the decision making is no longer only within the man’s hand as it once was, but also in the woman’s hands, the symmetrical family has an equal partnership in decision making. All this evidence leads some sociologists to view the roles and relations of couples to have been becoming somewhat more equal in compare to the past.On the other hand, some sociologists such as Morgan(1996) argue that women now take part in an act known as the ‘Triple Shift’, this is when women go out and work, but then also do domestic work when at home and give emotional support to partner and children. As a result, many feminists would argue that the roles and relations of couples are not equal, but actually unfair, the woman is doing so much more than her partner. This views result in some sociologist believing that roles and relations have changed in compare to the past, but in a path towards the woman doing more work than the man, making her the ‘breadwinner’.In conclusion, many sociologists believe that the roles and relations of couples have been becoming more equal, but there are some who still view it to not being equal at all, and some even arguing that women are doing more work than the men. From this evidence it is clear to say that it is not clear whether or not roles and relations are becoming more ‘equal’, but many sociologists argue that there has been a big change in compare to the past traditions, but whether or not it’s towards the path of the ‘more equal’ is still being argued by many. Siad Mohamed Siyad

Introduction to Michael Porters Five Forces

Michael E. Porter's five forces framework is used to evaluate the competitiveness, and hence the attractiveness and profitability of different markets and market segments. It is important for business managers to realize that a 5 forces analysis should be conducted at the level of strategic business units (SBUs), and not at the level of the whole organization. Many larger companies have several SBUs conducting business in different markets that serve many different customer segments. Likewise, these SBUs may have completely different suppliers, competitors and substituting products. Every SBU should therefore conduct its own analysis, and try to evaluate the attractiveness and profitability of its own markets and market segments. The five forces are shortly described below: Competitive Rivalry The evaluation of the rivalry between competitors helps to examine the degree of head-to-head competition in an industry. In Porter's â€Å"five forces† framework this issue is of course included, but is only seen as one of several forces that determine industry attractiveness. Commen reasons for high rivalry are depicted below:  § Low industry growth rates  § High exit barriers Undifferentiated supply of products  § Price wars to cover high fixed costs Threat of new entrants The threat of new entrants is usually based on the market entry barriers, which can be said to provide obstacles for newcomers to gain a foothold in any given industry. These barriers can take many different forms. Briefly, it can be said that entry barriers exist whenever it is difficult or not economically feasible for an outsider to copy or imitate the existing players' competitive capabilities. Common forms of entry barriers are depicted below:  § Economies of scale  § Capital requirement of entry Access to supplies and distribution channels  § Customer or supplier loyalty  § Lack of experience in industry  § Legal restrains such as trade barriers Threat of Substitute Products The threat of substitute products, depends on the relative price difference between different products that can equally satisfy the same basic customer needs. Switching costs also affect the threat of substitution – which can be defined as the costs found by buyers in switching to a rivals product or service.  § Product for products substitution (e. g. e-mail instead of postal service) New products make older products obsolete (e. g. better cars require fewer automobile services) Bargaining Power of Buyers Important determinants of buyer power are the size and the concen tration of customers. Other factors are the extent to which the buyers are informed about other vendors and suppliers, and to the extent to which buyers can quickly identify other sources of supply. Common reasons for great bargaining power of buyers are depicted below.  § Great concentration of buyers – few buyers  § The cost of switching supplier is low  § Many equally competent suppliers  § Backward integration Bargaining Power of Suppliers If there are few suppliers of e. g. raw materials, these suppliers may eventually be very strong, and able to put pressure on the buying company. Likewise, if the switching costs related to switching supplier are high, the respective supplier may be very strong, and thus be able to put pressure on the buying partner concerning e. g. prices, quantities and quality. Common reasons for great bargaining power of suppliers are depicted below.  § Great concentration of suppliers – few suppliers  § Great switching costs related to changing supplier  § Forward integration The competition and attractiveness in an industry is strongly affected by these suggested forces. The stronger the power of buyers and suppliers, and the stronger the threats of entry and substitution, the more intense competition is likely to be within the industry, where less competitive industries are seen as more attractive and profitable. Using the 5 forces framework, business managers may conduct an analysis of the attractiveness and profitability of different markets, so that business managers can evaluate different courses of strategic action, and evaluate which forces may be most important for current and future business success.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Is3440 Project Part 1 Essay

First World Savings and Loan is a financial institution that processes credit card transactions and loan applications online. We are currently considering implementing an open source infrastructure. This could potentially save us over $4,000,000 per year in licensing fees for the software we are currently using. However, due to our business needs; we must still comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), Payment Card Industry – Data Security Standard (PCI-DSS), and the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA). We must comply with SOX, because we are a publicly-traded financial institution; PCI-DSS, because we process online credit card transactions; and GLBA, because we are a financial institution. All of the regulations of these three compliancy laws must be met, while still maintaining the Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability (CIA) triad. All security requirements for SOX, PCI-DSS, and GLBA can be achieved using Linux and open source infrastructure. Some examples of open source software that we might use are: Web Server – Apache Web Filtering – DansGuardian Network Firewall – Turtle Firewall VPN – Endian Firewall Community IDS/IPS – Suricata Database – MySQL File Server – Samba SMTP Server – hMailServer I would recommend that we use a â€Å"Defense in Depth† strategy, having multiple layers of access protection. We need to have an IDS/IPS on both sides of our edge firewall. The inside IDS/IPS will be used as additional protection for our network and the outside IDS/IPS will serve as an early warning system from attacks. We will also use the outside IDS/IPS for additional protection and to monitor what types of attacks are occurring. Our web server and mail server should be completely separated from the rest of our network in a de-militarized zone (DMZ). We need to have a network firewall between our DMZ and our internal network, between the outside world and our internal network, and between our DMZ and the outside world. There should also be a local firewall enabled on each local machine. Also, since our physical servers will be hosted at a third party location, we must have VPN access to these servers to manage them. All private data will need to be encrypted, as well as all data transitions. To go along with the previously mentioned physical and software based security measures, we will also apply multiple policies to maintain this security. Acceptable Use  Policy – This policy will describe how the companies IT assets should and can be used. As well as what is not acceptable to do on company assets. Password Policy – This policy will explain what parameters a password must meet to be accepted. For example; a password must be at least 15 characters long have at least on capital letter, have at least one lower case letter, have at least one number, and have at least on symbol. Privacy Policy – This policy describes what information must remain confidential. Training employees on the proper way to use (and how NOT to use) company assets is a major key to ensuring the CIA triad remains intact and our network secure. In this part of the executive summary, I am going to be explaining, and making recommendations on what the best options are for the open source software that is needed for the management of the First World Savings and Loan financial institute’s various web and application servers. F or each of the servers, I recommend using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux operating system for a number of reasons. The main ones being that it is one of the most secure, It’s backed by years of technical support, It’s supported by a vast number of different hardware, and It is one of the most, if not the most, popular and used server OSs that one can get today. I would rather go with software that has been vigorously tested to its breaking point and still remains at the top tier of server software options that’s readily available today, than one that has just come out with all of the bells and whistles. So on that note, let’s get started on what I recommend to be the best of the best in terms of specific software and service needs. There are numerous great open source software solutions for database servers, like, H2, HyperSQL, MySQL, mysql, Oracle, and PostgreSQL, just to name a few. They all offer topnotch functionality, performance, scalability, and security. As far as which one is the best, I recommend PostgreSQL. PostgreSQL is an object-relational Database softwar e solution that offers some of the most feature rich options as compared to the bigger commercial manufacturers like Oracle, IBM, Sybase and Informix, and the best part of it, it’s free. It’s also one of the first database software that was released, and it has a proven track record with over 23 years of active development. It was created back in 1989. The only other DB software that came out before it is Oracle, which was created back in 1979. Now PostgreSQL might not be the fastest, but It more than makes up for it with its functionality. It allows the use of two  different types of interfaces, a GUI (for those who like the point-click style) and a SQL. It works on most OSs like windows, Linux, Mac, Unix, etc. It has a vast array of services and tools that is included to streamline the administration of the Database. Here are just some examples; Full ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, & Durability) compliancy, commercial & noncommercial support, triggers support, user defined data type support, stored procedure support, online backup, multiple index type input support, embedded access controls, encryption, etc. Here is a comparison of the top DB software available I got from the unbiased, data-driven comparison website; —————— Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€- Specifications Product | MySQL | Oracle | PostgreSQL | Architecture | Relational Model | Relational Model | Object-relational Model | Software License | * GPL * PostgreSQL * Proprietary | * GPL * PostgreSQL * Proprietary | * GPL * PostgreSQL * Proprietary | Operating System | * Windows * Mac OS X * Linux * UNIX * z/OS * BSD * Symbian * AmigaOS | * Windows * Mac OS X * Linux * UNIX * z/OS * BSD * Symbian * AmigaOS | * Windows * Mac OS X * Linux * UNIX * z/OS * BSD * Symbian * AmigaOS | Demo? | | – | | Interface | * GUI * SQL | * GUI * SQL | * GUI * SQL | Website | MySQL ( | Oracle ( | PostgreSQL ( | First Public Release Year | 1995 | 1979 | 1989 | Lastest Stable Version | 5.5.19 | 11g Release 2 | 9.1.3 | ————————————————- -Price Price | $0 | $180 | $0 | Purchase Page | MySQL (https) | Oracle (https) | – | ————————————————- -General Features Features | * ACID * Backup * Custom Functions * Database Imports * Export Data * Extensibility * High Availability * Highly Scalable * Import Data * Java Support * Multi-Core Support * See more†º | * ACID * Backup * Custom Functions * Database Imports * Export Data * Extensibility * High Availability * Highly Scalable * Import Data * Java Support * Multi-Core Support * See more†º | * ACID * Backup * Custom Functions * Database Imports * Export Data * Extensibility * High Availability * Highly Scalable * Import Data * Java Support * Multi-Core Support * See more†º | Indexes | * Bitmap * Expression * Full-text * GIN * GiST * Hash * Partial * R-/R+ Tree * Reverse | * Bitmap * Expression * Full-text * GIN * GiST * Hash * Partial * R-/R+ Tree * Reverse | * Bitmap * Expression * Full-text * GIN * GiST * Hash * Partial * R-/R+ Tree * Reverse | Database Capabilities | * Blobs and Clobs * Common Table Expressions * Except * Inner Joins * Inner Selects * Intersect * Merge Joins * Outer Joins * Parallel Query * Union * Windowing Functions | * Blobs and Clobs * Common Table Expressions * Except * Inner Joins * Inner Selects * Intersect * Merge Joins * Outer Joins * Parallel Query * Union * Windowing Functions | * Blobs and Clobs * Common Table Expressions * Except * Inner Joins * Inner Selects * Intersect * Merge Joins * Outer Joins * Parallel Query * Union * Windowing Functions | Partitioning | * Composite (Range + Hash) * Hash * List * Native Replication API * Range * Shadow | * Composite (Range + Hash) * Hash * List * Native Replication API * Range * Shadow | * Composite (Range + Hash) * Hash * List * Native Replication API * Range * Shadow | Access Control | * Audit * Brute-force Protection * Enterprise Directory Compatibility * Native Network Encryption * Password Complexity Rules * Patch Access * Resource Limit * Run Unprivileged * Security Certification | * Audit * Brute-force Protection * Enterprise Directory Compatibility * Native Network Encryption * Password Complexity Rules * Patch Access * Resource Limit * Run Unprivileged * Security Certification | * Audit * Brute-force Protection * Enterpr ise Directory Compatibility * Native Network Encryption * Password Complexity Rules * Patch Access * Resource Limit * Run Unprivileged * Security Certification | Tables and Views | * Materialized Views * Temporary Table | * Materialized Views * Temporary Table | * Materialized Views * Temporary Table | Other Objects | * Cursor * Data Domain * External Routine * Function * Procedure * Trigger | * Cursor * Data Domain * External Routine * Function * Procedure * Trigger | * Cursor * Data Domain * External Routine * Function * Procedure * Trigger | Support Features | * Email * FAQ * Forums * Live chat * Mailing List * On-site * Phone * Tips and hints * White papers | * Email * FAQ * Forums * Live chat * Mailing List * On-site * Phone * Tips and hints * White papers | * Email * FAQ * Forums * Live chat * Mailing List * On-site * Phone * Tips and hints * White papers | ————————————————- -Product Description Product Description | MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) that runs as a server providing multi-user access to a number of databases. MySQL is officially pronounced /maÉ ªÃ‹Å'É›skjuË Ã‹Ë†Ã‰â€ºl/ (â€Å"My S-Q-L†), but is often also pronounced /maÉ ªÃ‹Ë†siË kwÉ™l/ (â€Å"My Sequel†). It is named for original developer Michael Widenius’s daughter My. | Oracle Database 11g Release 2 provides the foundation for IT to successfully deliver more information with higher quality of service, reduce the risk of change within IT, and make more efficient use of their IT budgets. By deploying Oracle Database 11g Release 2 as their data management foundation, organizations can utilize the full power of the world’s leading database to:ï‚ · Reduce server costs by a factor of 5ï‚ · Reduce storage requirements by a factor of 12ï‚ · Improve mission critical systems performance by a factor of 10ï‚ · Increase DBA productivity by a fa ctor of 2ï‚ · Eliminate idle redundancy in the data center, andï‚ · Simplify their overall IT software portfolio. | PostgreSQL is a powerful, open source object-relational database system. It has more than 15 years of active development and a proven architecture that has earned it a strong reputation for reliability, data integrity, and correctness. It runs on all major operating systems, including Linux, UNIX (AIX, BSD, HP-UX, SGI IRIX, Mac OS X, Solaris, Tru64), and Windows. It is fully ACID compliant, has full support for foreign keys, joins, views, triggers, and stored procedures (in multiple languages). It includes most SQL:2008 data types, including INTEGER, NUMERIC, BOOLEAN, CHAR, VARCHAR, DATE, INTERVAL, and TIMESTAMP. It also supports storage of binary large objects, including pictures, sounds, or video. It has native programming interfaces for C/C++, Java, .Net, Perl, Python, Ruby, Tcl, ODBC, among others, and exceptional documentation. | ———â₠¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€- -Contact Information Contact Link | MySQL ( | Oracle ( | PostgreSQL ( | Phone | 1 (866) 221-0634 | 1 (800) 392-2999 | – | ————————————————- -Limits Max Blob/Clob Size | 4 GB | Unlimited | 1 GB (text, bytea) – stored inline or 2 GB (stored in pg_largeobject) | Max CHAR Size | 64 KB (text) | 4000 B | 1 GB | Max Column Name Size | 64 | 30 | 63 | Max Columns per Row | 4096 | 1000 | 250-1600 depending on type | Max DATE Value | 9999 | 9999 | 5874897 | Max DB Size | Unlimited | Unlimited | Unlimited | Max NUMBER Size | 64 bits | 126 bits | Unlimited | Max Row Size | 64 KB | 8KB | 1.6 TB | Max Table Size | MyISAM storage limits: 256TB; Innodb storage limits: 64TB | 4 GB | 32 TB | Min DATE Value | 1000 | -4712 | -4713 | ————————————————- -Data Types Type System | * Dynamic * Static | * Dynamic * Static | * Dynamic * Static | Integer | * BIGINT (64-bit) * INTEGER (32-bit) * MEDIUMINT (24-bit) * NUMBER * SMALLINT * SMALLINT (16-bit) * TINYINT (8-bit) | * BIGINT (64-bit) * INTEGER (32-bit) * MEDIUMINT (24-bit) * NUMBER * SMALLINT * SMALLINT (16-bit) * TINYINT (8-bit) | * BIGINT (64-bit) * INTEGER (32-bit) * MEDIUMINT (24-bit) * NUMBER * SMALLINT * SMALLINT (16-bit) * TINYINT (8-bit) | Floating Point | * BINARY_DOUBLE * BINARY_FLOAT * DOUBLE (64-bit) * DOUBLE PRECISION * FLOAT * REAL | * BINARY_DOUBLE * BINARY_FLOAT * DOUBLE (64-bit) * DOUBLE PRECISION * FLOAT * REAL | * BINARY_DOUBLE * BINARY_FLOAT * DOUBLE (64-bit) * DOUBLE PRECISION * FLOAT * REAL | Decimal | * DECIMAL * NUMERIC | * DECIMAL * NUMERIC | * DECIMAL * NUMERIC | String | * CHAR * NCHAR * NVARCHAR * TEXT * VARCHAR | * CHAR * NCHAR * NVARCHAR * TEXT * VARCHAR | * CHAR * NCHAR * NVARCHAR * TEXT * VARCHAR | Binary | * BFILE * BINARY * BINARY LARGE OBJECT * BYTEA * LONGBLO B * LONGRAW * MEDIUMBLOB * RAW * TINYBLOB * VARBINARY | * BFILE * BINARY * BINARY LARGE OBJECT * BYTEA * LONGBLOB * LONGRAW * MEDIUMBLOB * RAW * TINYBLOB * VARBINARY | * BFILE * BINARY * BINARY LARGE OBJECT * BYTEA * LONGBLOB * LONGRAW * MEDIUMBLOB * RAW * TINYBLOB * VARBINARY | Date/Time | * DATE * DATETIME * TIME * TIMESTAMP * YEAR | * DATE * DATETIME * TIME * TIMESTAMP * YEAR | * DATE * DATETIME * TIME * TIMESTAMP * YEAR | Boolean | * BOOLEAN * Unknown | * BOOLEAN * Unknown | * BOOLEAN * Unknown | Other | * ARRAYS * AUDIO * BIT * CIDR * CIRCLE * DICOM * ENUM * GIS data types * IMAGE * INET * MACCADDR * See more†º | * ARRAYS * AUDIO * BIT * CIDR * CIRCLE * DICOM * ENUM * GIS data types * IMAGE * INET * MACCADDR * See more†º | * ARRAYS * AUDIO * BIT * CIDR * CIRCLE * DICOM * ENUM * GIS data types * IMAGE * INET * MACCADDR * See more†º | I think it’s pretty obvious that the data speaks for itself. You can’t get any better option unless you want to pay big money for these specific services. When it comes to deciding on which open source web server software to utilize, there are a lot of different options, such as, Apache, LightTPD, NGiNX, Boa, Cherokee, etc. The one that stands out the most is Apache. Apache is the most popular web server to date. It is the leading web server that is used most over all others including open source and non-open source options, such as, Microsoft’s IIS, Google’s proprietary custom servers, NGiNX, AOL, IBM, etc. according to the website Here is a graph table I found (it’s a little dated) to give you an idea: Apache is the leader because of its functionality, performance, price (it’s free), stability, and security. It has top notch cross-plat forming capabilities so it can be used on numerous operating systems like, Microsoft’s Windows platform, Linux and UNIX based platforms, Macintosh platforms, BSD platforms, IBM platforms, HP platforms, etc. It can basically run on just about all OS platforms. This is ideal in today’s ever evolving business needs and requirements. Some of the best features that an Apache web server offers are as follows: Basic access authentication & digest access authentication, SSL/TLS HTTPS, virtual hosting, CGI, FCGI, SCGI, Java, SSI, ISAPI, runs in user space versus kernel space, Administration console, and IPv4 & IPv6 addressing. Now these are just some of the feature sets that Apache uses. It helps that most, if not all, of these features are security based; which is most important when dealing with IT in any aspect of today’s business world and society itself. There are a lot of different options when it comes to file servers. Some examples are, FileZilla, Samba,  HFS, TurnKey, Cerberus, VSFTPD, etc. As far as what’s the best file server software options it boils down to the company’s needs. I recommend using Samba or FileZilla for a number of reasons. Samba has over 20 years of development and FileZilla has over 10 years of development, They both offer amazing cross-plat forming capabilities on several different operating systems, They are both pretty easy to setup and administer, they both offer great security, and best of all they are free. This is extremely important for a modern business. Also the fact that they are free helps in cutting down company costs and drives up financial gains throughout the entire company. Plus, Samba speaks natively with Microsoft Windows machines and these are typically what most end users use for their operating systems. Now for the open source SMTP server software I recommend using iRedMail. iRedMail offers two different options, iRedMail (which is free) & iRedMailPro (which is a paid version for $299 per server per year) with amazing fully fledged features. The feature include: blazing fast deployment (less than 1 minute), easy to use, security and stability, mind-blowing productivity (uses a very little resources to run), top notch support, absolute control over data (all personal data is stored on company’s hard disk versus some third party storage medium), supports virtualization and non-virtualization software (VMware, Xen, VirtualBox, KVM, OpenVZ, etc. with i386 and x86/x64/ amd64 compatibility), low maintenance, unlimited accounts, stores mail in openLDAP, MySQL, and PostgreSQL, Service and access restrictions, throttling, Anti-Spam & Anti-Virus by de fault, Webmail, backup support, and security (forced password change policy for every 90 days, uses SSL/TLS connections for sending and receiving mail, etc.). The support offered for iRedMail is among the best and in the business world, this is a must. The LDAP server I recommend is Red Hat Directory Server because it offers some of the best features to date. It’s also has some of the best support in the business. It has an amazing reputation as well. Here is a list of the features that it offers: cost-savings, tremendous scalability (Allows 4-way multimaster replication of data across the entire enterprise while providing centralized, consistent data, and allows extranet applications), enhanced security (provides centralized, fine-grained access controls, and utilizes strong certificate-based authentication & encryption.), and amazing productivity (centralizes user identity and  applications for ease of access for administration), you can’t go wrong with using softw are from a nationally known and reputable company like Red Hat Linux. Each user will be put into groups; this will be done to control access to the file system. Each user on the network will have to meet the standards below. Having each user in groups will help manage them, and what they have access and are allowed to do on the server. Each user will have their own partitioned /home directory to reduce impact of the file system. No user should be without a group, any users without groups will only have access to only their home directory. The following is the password policy they will be using: User account Standard users: Restrict reuse of passwords to once per 18 months Set min day for password expire Set max day for password expire every 30 days Set password complexity to require 1 capital letter, 1 lower case letter, 1 number, 1 symbol and must be at least 15 characters long Enforce password policies Ensure all users do not have access to sudo, or su rights  Create groups for all users, and give them allow sups or admins to maintain rights to those groups, and allow them specific path use on sudo (only if needed). This will allow users to access the data they need to complete their jobs. Also with this password system in place, it will ensure they do not use simple passwords or recycle passwords too often. Super users: Rights to manage groups Specific path use of sudo Restrict reuse of passwords Set min day for password expire Set max day for password expire Set password complexity Enforce password policies These will help super users to manage groups and have access to the tools that they need. This also prevents the users from having too much access to the systems. This helps the admin manage groups by allowing them to move users into the correct group or give them access to specific files that they may need access to. Su will only be used by top level admins, and only if something is truly not working. Lower level admins will have sudo access to files they need to have access to. Users will only have read/write access to the files they need access to; the rest will be read only access. Kernel will be locked down and will need admin permission to access. Passwd file will not be accessible by anyone other than top level admins Firewall and iptables will only be accessible by top level admins and super users. Configuring our network in this manner and applying these user access control permissions will cost less money and add a greater level of security. Using this â€Å"Defense in Depth† strategy, we will have multiple layers of security that an attacker will have to penetrate to break the CIA triad.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Marketing Strategy for Business ''Express Star'' Essay

Marketing Strategy for Business ''Express Star'' - Essay Example The company is looking for ways to use the brand value of MNA and gain trust held within the market it serves (Andereck, 2005). At present the company is setting up a new business arm completely different from the present business units. It has decided to open up a new recruiting agency by the name Star Employment Service. Other than that there are plans to build new revenue streams, which will either complement the existing media products or will lead to new business opportunities away from the traditional business model (Abratt et al. 2011). The present research paper endeavors to produce a rough sketch of the marketing strategy that Express & Star can follow. The current strategy of Express & Star and its applicability, benefits are discussed in the present business environment. Then a detailed external and internal analysis is produced to reflect the best strategic option available to Express & Star. The choice of the most suitable strategy is explained with justification, and th en followed up with subsequent implementation. It is finished off with the inclusion of the control systems to keep the changes within the desired level. Integration of the marketing problem-solving modes and marketing management support system There are more than 5 different types of marketing management models in the market. Some of the marketing management models have core statistical application and controlling techniques. There are vast differences in the marketing management models like in Marketing Information System, the main idea is to support the marketing management team with critical marketing information processed and filtered by applying statistical techniques. There is another type of model which is called the Marketing Decision Support System (Wierenga and Bruggen, 1997). The marketing decision support system helps to derive different strategic decisions using statistical concepts combined with strategic concepts and ideas. Again there is another different set of too l called the Marketing Management Support System. The marketing management support system helps to achieve a different set of benefits which are completely different than the other marketing management techniques discussed above. The different marketing management techniques have unique set of benefits and applications which distinguished them from each other. Although one thing that must be noted is that all the different kinds of marketing management techniques have more or less the same origin. The origin of the different marketing concepts lies in the marketing problem solving modes, which is short formed as the ORAC framework (Wierenga and Bruggen, 1997). The ORAC framework includes the optimizing option, reasoning option, analogizing option and the creating option. It is important that there is proper correlation between the ORAC framework and the marketing management support system. The following diagram gives an indication of the correlation between the marketing management support system and the ORAC framework Source: (Wierenga and Bruggen, 1997) The diagram indicates the relationship between the MPMS and the MMSS. Optimizing leads to development of the marketing model estimation, reasoning leads to MKIS, MDSS, MNN and MKBS. Analogizing leads to the development of MCBR and MNN. Creating leads to the d

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Point of View Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Point of View - Essay Example the reader does not get to know the name of Dee’s male companion because â€Å"after I tripped over it†¦he told me to just call him Hakim-a-barber.† It is also not clear whether the man is a barber or not because the narrator does not ask. Moreover, the readers cannot glean much about the relationship between Dee and Hakim-a-barber and where they have been before appearing on the scene. On the other hand, the first person’s point of view allows the readers to get into the story as they are able to see the world from the narrator’s perspective. A different type of narration, the third person, can alter the meaning of the story. It would have allowed the author to pursue multiple storylines; thus, giving the reader a broader views of the story. For example, it would have enabled the author to explore Dee’s life and by so doing, the readers would have been able to learn more about Dee’s companion. The narrator says â€Å"You must belong to those beef-cattle people down the road.† The readers may not be familiar with the kind of people that live â€Å"down the road†. The third person’s point of view would have allowed the author more room for shedding light on the beef-cattle people down the

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Globalization Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Globalization - Research Paper Example DJ Khaled is one of the Arabic rappers who raps in English. He has songs with Lil Wayne, Rick Ross and Akon. Other people are like Super Saian Crew, Satam and Abady who are Arabs and rap well. Rap music is a popular music in the Arab world because of globalization and it has affected the Arab culture and changed young Arab people. Specially the blend of the Arabian and the English music has gave rise to a new genre of music that is quite unlike the conventional music in Arabia. This kind of music affects our culture, especially the young generation who grow up with it and not with Arab culture. The young generation is induced by this kind of music and they like it very much. This kind of music might let the person to speak out. People can say what they feel through this kind of music about surroundings. They will write their own words. As a result this kind of music focuses on the freedom of  speech. It is new way to express  oneself musically. The increased freedom of expression is both good and bad for the society in many ways. Sometimes, people speak out too much in the name of freedom that hurts the feelings of others.

Friday, July 26, 2019

History of a Technology or Specific aspect of Engineering Research Paper

History of a Technology or Specific aspect of Engineering - Research Paper Example These factors have created a rich history and heritage regarding software engineering. What is Software Engineering? Software engineering is a process of producing programmes to provide functionalities basing on the problem being solved. The software can either be generic in which it is provided to the customers the way it is or custom in which customers can change it to suit their specifications. Software is engineered to give instructions to hardware components, for example, computers; and hand held hardware devices, for example, mobile phones and tablets to perform certain tasks. Software needs hardware for it to be operational. The specific hardware specifications determine the type of software that will be engineered and the specifications it should have (Puntambeker 3). The Early Days of Software Engineering Software engineering was cracked in the mid twentieth century. However, all the credit goes to people who started the ideology way before the twentieth century. In 1804, Fr ench by the name Jaquard made a loom that would perform predefined tasks using punched cards that were fed on a reading contraption on the loom. This technology was used for the production of carpets and tissue. It allowed people with no skills to use the loom to make carpets and tissue. This technology by Jaquard inspired many people to think on ways they could put instructions on the card to be replicated on the product (Robat 5). Charles Babbage designed an analytical machine which would use programmes. Although the machine never operated, Ada Lovelace wrote a rudimentary programme for the machine that was designed by Babbage in 1843. Four years later, a British mathematician George Boole proved that there was a lot of relation between mathematics and logic. Logic was therefore mathematical and not philosophical as previously claimed by the ancient philosophers (Robat 8). These four people had an idea of how programming would work, but never went to the extent of starting it off. Their ideas proved important to the people who later on pioneered software engineering. At first, programmers and other professionals in this field could not comprehend what John Von Neumann was saying. They analyzed his statements and looked at them logically to start getting a clear picture of exactly what he meant. Programmers and experts who understood this went ahead to make computing better. Random Access Memory was developed with the main objective of allowing easy access to any information in the computer faster. The improvements were well embraced but still, there was a lot of room for improvement, especially in the software part. The computing machines at the time were quite huge, the size of a grand piano using about 2,500 tubes (Evans, 2004). Software engineering went a notch higher, with the plan calculus by Konrad Zuse in 1945. This was the first ever documented algorithmic programming language. The objective of Konrad was to create theoretical preconditions of solvin g general problems. This new development inspired many others to continue with the improvement in the quest to engineer the best software. In 1948, Claude Shannon coined out the mathematical theory of communication through which engineers were taught how to code and to check for transmission accuracy between computers. Four years later, Grace Hopper came up with a compiler this allowed computers to use words instead of numbers. She came up with ARITH-MATIC, FLOW-MATIC and MATH-MATIC [software] basing on her A-0 compiler.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

EXPERIENCE FROM MEMORY Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

EXPERIENCE FROM MEMORY - Essay Example Naturally, I am not a good artist-I am poor in drawing and things to do with painting. This explains why when notices were pinned all over the school notifying the students that a drawing competition was due and that the best candidate would win a prize, I was sure I would just do it for purposes of fulfilling the requirement of the notice but not pitching myself for the top candidate in the event. Therefore, my resolution was real and was based on the simple fact that, in our class was the best artist in the entire schools, and even one of the administration offices bore the portrait of the principal-courtesy of his handwork. It was thus unwise to imagine outsmarting such a person in competition he is much talented on that I was. Everybody was given two weeks to submit a completed portrait of the minister for Education through artistic drawing. It brought much hype I school with most of the normal school programs interrupted- during games and other activities; student would absconded such and attend to their portrait drawing. I gave up long ago and decided to do it last minute because there was going to be no difference. After one week, I took a different thought, I said to myself, why I cannot just do my best in this exercise so that I know where I rightly belong. I went to the library, took some of the basis drawing books read a few ideas on drawing like how to bring contrast, overlap and creation of desired impressions in drawing. From the basic knowledge, I went and downloaded one of the minister’s pictures in his joyful moments and started my work. I did my work in stages while keeping the deadline time, on the final day I was ready to deliver my drawing since I only had to fix the frame. Every other person did their best hoping to emerge the best, but with our guru friend I the picture I think all of us were after position two, unfortunately you count know this

Aspects of contracts Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Aspects of contracts - Assignment Example 34). Offer is very important in contracts because it shows the willingness of parties to enter into an agreement. When a business entity offers its promise under certain conditions, the other party must accept the conditions and in turn give an offer in order to form a contract. Offers are very crucial because they create an avenue for contracting parties to enter into a legal relationship leading to acceptance (Emerson 2009, p. 34). Acceptance is another important element of a contract that makes parties agrees to the terms of the offer. When a business gives an offer to the suppliers through an advertisement, it shows that, the business accepts the contract (Emerson 2009, p. 35). If the suppliers do not accept the offer despite the favourable conditions associated with it, the contract is deemed invalid. Legal laws guiding acceptance of the granted offer requires that there should be proper communication so as to satisfy the both parties. In contracts, each party will feel considered if it gets something in return after giving its promise. Consideration is an important element of contracts because the contracting parties receive promises, which makes them feel represented in any agreement. Consideration for a promise makes legally binding contracts rather than gratuitous contracts that cannot be protected by the courts (Emerson 2009, p. 36). Contracting parties ought to be adults in order to form valid contracts. In addition, the parties should compose of people with full mental capabilities such that they are not mad (Emerson 2009, p. 36). Agreements between companies are considered certain when they are apparent to the basic terms of a contract. If the contracting parties are unaware of the legal requirements of contracts, they are likely to form invalid contracts, which are not easily enforceable (Emerson 2009, p. 37). Sales

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Smoking Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Smoking - Assignment Example risks of strokes by 2 to 4 time; coronary heart complication by 2 to 4 times; risks of cancer in women by 13 times, risk of cancer in men by 23 times and death from chronic, lung obstructive diseases by 12 to 13 times. To this end, it is pertinent for both smokers and non smokers to be enlightened on the risks factor of smoking, the benefits of not smoking as well as the intervention mechanisms for quitting smoking. It is a lifestyle habit whereby individuals engage in the inhaling of tobacco cigarettes. Evidently, smoking is a pertinent social and health problem due to a host of reasons. Foremost, tobacco smoking is a leading cause of preventable disease and death. Second, the longer an individual smokes during his or her lifetime; there is an increased level of damage to the health. Third, all tobacco smoke does not contain any risk-free level. Consequently, there is an immediate damage from tobacco smoking. Fourth, all cigarettes are pose critical health risks. To this end, there are no safe cigarettes. Evidently, smoking is a problem that affects the health of both smokers and non-smokers. This is due to the secondhand and thirdhand smoke which can be detrimental to the health of both smokers and non-smokers in society. Evidently, secondhand smokes emanates from two forms. These are sidestream smoke and mainstream smoke. In this regard, sidestream smokes emanates from the scorching end of a cigarette. On the other hand, mainstream smoke refers to the exhaled smoke by the smoker. To this end, both mainstream and sidestream smokes reside in the air as small particles for longer periods of time stretching into hours and days. Consequently, exposure to such particles for even such brief periods is enough to trigger health complications such as chest pains and heart pains. In this regard, there is concoction of chemicals present in tobacco smoke which are harmful to the non smokers and smokers. Evidently, there are at 69 chemical components of tobacco smoke

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Average education on workers and opening business time in Tel aviv Essay

Average education on workers and opening business time in Tel aviv - Essay Example Investors should also register their companies with tax authority where all the necessary details of the company should be provided by filling form number 4436. A corporate tax should be paid to the Israel tax authority. Moreover, investors should also be aware of the social security contribution for their employees. The law requires employers to withhold some part of their employee’s income and submit it to the National Insurance Institute for purpose of providing employees with a medical cover. Finally, investors should be aware of the two types of incentives provided by the Israel government to encourage investors namely; declining corporate tax and investment incentives (Ministry of Economy State In Israel, pp.1-3) The average education on workers is 83 percent among men and women between the age of 25 and 64 years who have attained an equivalent of high school degree. Research indicates that having a good education is an important factor of getting a good job in Israel. Research further indicates that the quality of education score stood at an average of four hundred and ninety seven whereby average boys perform less than girls by eleven points (Publishing and OECD,

Monday, July 22, 2019

The Importance of Expression Essay Example for Free

The Importance of Expression Essay â€Å"If all mankind minus one, were of one opinion, and only one person were of the contrary opinion, mankind would be no more justified in silencing that one person, than he, if he had the power, would be justified in silencing mankind†(Mill). This quote, by John Stuart Mill, is a quote that I originally disagreed with. Before reading the essay, I thought on all of the different examples in which the silencing of a certain opinion can be beneficial to the masses. A particular example that still sticks out to me is the silencing of the Westboro Baptist Church, a prolific hate group known for speaking out against marine funerals and picketing tragedies such as the Sandy Hook Massacre. How could such a volatile group of hate mongers possibly have any right to such opinions? But after reading a few different essays on the subject, and applying the opinions and logic of the authors into my daily life and other real world situations, I came to the conclusion that all ideas and opinions should be openly debated, respected, and tolerated regardless of how society views the subject matter, so as to enlighten and instill progress in mankind. In modern times, I have frequently noticed how quick people are to jump down the throats of those who do not share their similar opinion. A good example of this is the group of people I hang out with, who are all extremely liberal. As soon as I would make any commentary against certain controversial subjects, such as Affirmative Action and abortion, my friends would immediately disagree with everything I say. Instead of using proper etiquette in their arguments, they digress to sarcasm, name calling, and bias. To them, silencing my opinion is more important than enlightening me, and even if their intentions were to do so, the overly aggressive way in which they argue is extremely counterproductive. It was almost as if they viewed me as immoral person simply because I did not agree with them on certain things. Not only is this mentality prevalent in small social groups, but across the world people are being jailed for having beliefs that contradict with the beliefs of the general public, and this is happening not only in countries that deny their citizens freedom of speech. In Sweden, four men were arrested for handing out leaflets that called homosexuality â€Å"deviant† and â€Å"morally destructive† (William). In England, a man was arrested for displaying in his window a 9/11 poster proclaiming â€Å"Islam out of Britain,† (William) and in France a man was arrested for writing an article debunking the plausibility of poison gas technology in Nazi concentration camps (William). It seems that, ironically, the more politically correct the world becomes, the more intolerant it is towards unfavorable opinions. The first point I have learned and applied to my life is temperance in arguments. In many cases, opinions are withheld because of the fear of verbal abuse, sarcasm, personal attacks, and extreme bias. Temperance is very important when arguing with another person, as well as a certain level of etiquette. The worst and most demeaning thing a person can do is stigmatize there opponent as an immoral person just because they don’t agree with them. Attacking someone you don’t agree with in this way may not be the same as taking legal action to silence them, but it is still a silencing technique none the less and is just as immoral. When you stifle one opinion in favor of another, no matter how ridiculous of an opinion it is, and no matter how certain you are that you are correct in your views, the supported opinion loses nearly all inherent meaning; it is passed to future generations who accept it simply because there is nothing else to accept. Not only are no arguments made against the doctrine, but no arguments are made in favor of it either. Overtime, people forget the beliefs meaning, its semantics are lost, and it becomes nothing more than a collection of fixed forms. An opinion is like a hypothesis; it is based on some fact, but must be tested repeatedly to see if it can be proven true. An idea that is not argued frequently and passionately loses its meaning, and people become apathetic to its cause. Another reason all opinions should be openly debated is that, although popular opinion on intangible subjects often contain most of the truth, rarely, if ever, do they contain the absolute truth. Sometimes a coalition of two opposing ideas can lead to a compromise that contains a more absolute truth. To accept that an opinion is false simply because everyone tells you so is complete ignorance, the same can be said about silencing an opinion. To silence an opinion is to assume that said opinion is infallibly false. Any person, group, or organization that claims to know such an infallible truth is ignorant indeed, because to proclaim an absolute truth, you must prove that the truth can be applied to every single situation regardless of context. To my knowledge, anything that is claimed to be an absolute truth, that cannot be physically tested, cannot be proven. For example, one may argue that â€Å"racial discrimination is wrong† is an infallible truth. Well I could argue that, in some religions, such as Rastafarianism, only allow people of a certain color, in this case African American, to join their religion. Would this make all Rastafarians who agree with this morally wrong? These is an example in which an unpopular opinion, â€Å"racial discrimination is not morally wrong† can be bogged down by social stigmas perpetrated by the media, but still contain a portion of the truth. Even though, in general, such a statement can be perceived as negative and immoral, its flaws do not outweigh the portion of truth contained within it enough to justify condemnation. A common complaint against my points would be the viewpoint on morality. In my essay I have defended every opinion that would usually be regarded as immoral. It would be wrong to say, though, that I am defending the actual meanings of these opinions, I am certainly not a racist bigot, but I am defending the right of people to have these opinions. So, why should hate groups, such as the Westboro Baptist Church, have the right to preach against so many principles that I hold dear? Through the readings of various essays in my HMXP book, I have learned that it is because of temperance. Without temperance, I am just as bad as the Westboro Baptist Church, when I chastise the arguments of my peers without having an open mind, I am just as bad as the media in today’s society, and when I try to silence others who are trying to voice their opinions, in a way I am just as bad as the governments in Europe who are preventing people from speaking their minds. If I can make an effort to change my ways, and make an effort to become less ignorant and open minded, even towards things that seem ludicrous or inane, not only will I be able to strengthen my beliefs, but I may also exchange old beliefs for new, more credible ones. All in all, if everyone in the world respected one another’s opinions, tolerated each other’s beliefs, and openly debated issues with a certain level of temperance, then the world would advance both morally and intellectually.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Comparative Studies in sociology

Comparative Studies in sociology We undertake comparative study because, notwithstanding the difficulties of this exercise, there are clear benefits Discuss using examples to illustrate your arguments. Comparative study is an area where risks and benefits are very frequently mentioned. Today, Comparative study has grown into a very major field that could be applied to most of the subjects, and especially so, for Sociology and other Social Sciences. The field of Social Policy had been immensely benefited by the comparative study, as this has facilitated to compare the social policies and ways of working with those of other countries. There is a long tradition of fascination of comparing one thing with another of similar position. Social research has a long and healthy background. Through systematic study, Montesquieu wished to see how, in ways previously unsuspected, society forms people as social creatures. At the same time, he did not view society in terms of progressive development, but one of advances and set-backs in the path to liberty and all that was good, says Tim May, (1996, p. 15). Benefits belong to the fact that only a comparative study could hope to identify the factors that are specific to national health care systems, as distinct from being common to all such systems. A comparative perspective can extend national ideas about what is possible and at the same time provide the understanding that must precede prescription. Comparative study is an important part of diverse branches of Social Studies. For years now, empirical and comparative studies, have formed integral part of any ongoing research of Sociology. Comparative study as a tool of research in most of the subjects has come to be accepted over the years. It can bring out elements that could offer an overpowering study. Before analysing the negative and positive points of the comparative study, focus should be on the preliminary questions that have to be answered. Defining the level of comparison is the best way of starting a research on comparative basis. A researcher might offer many levels or might target the minimum levels needed for the comparison. Levels of comparison may be internal, like comparisons with one local governments and another, or intra-organisational comparisons, taking two or three organisations for this purpose. Or comparisons could be between different systems like international comparisons, private and public sector comparisons. Studies have to be concerned with similarity or dissimilarity. The targets of study should be directly or indirectly comparable. If comparability could not be established, it is difficult to conduct even an unclear and incoherent comparative study. Target groups should be clearly defined and the researcher should have complete knowledge of his research topics. The path in which his research is heading should be crystal clear to the researcher. Validity of comparison should be an accepted one. Th is would help the scholar, as the acceptance of his theory through the study would be very important to him. Comparative evaluation, which perhaps might be the last goal of the researcher, should be clearly defined and the study should be conducted with this Difficulties had been plaguing Comparative Study from the beginning. The units of the comparison of organisational systems or even the sub systems cannot be the same and this had been the grouse of many social scientists. Risk also lies in the temptation of social scientists to seek perfect solutions to national problems in the experience of other countries. This is not a clever way of conducting research, because the distinct peculiarity of such a situation could not be emulated for the purpose of studies. Each countrys experience will be unique and diverse under the peculiarity of given circumstances and such a strangeness could not compared with another one, with perhaps a uniqueness of its own. This social, political and economic eccentricity could be the product of that particular country and culture and cannot be universal. According to some of the researchers, theory plays very little part in the comparative study. No doubt it is there, but it figures as a very small part of it. But theory does not make as big a contribution as it should make. This had been a stumbling block ever since the comparative research has become popular. Another problem that surfaces very often is that comparative study has become too common. Starting from ordinary market surveys, public opinions or any smallest thing possible, has come under comparative study and hence, this has become a very common way of research. There is no novelty left in it, and it has become stale. The methodology has been used too many times with too little gratification. This had been the argument of many social scientists. There is another argument that a universal social science is emerging due to over use of the comparative study. In a historical study of development of comparative social research Scheuch shows how the commercial institutes for market and opinion research went into cross-national comparisons as early as in the thirtees, (Oyen, p.6). This would erase the peculiarities and distinctions of various societies leading to a uniform kind of society without any differentiation and that would be the ultimate human tragedy. Another disadvantage lies in the sampling and sometimes the impossibility of it. Sampling might suffer due to lack of variety. And then dimensions might differ. Especially in studies of ethnicities, this could be a problem. The uniqueness, peculiarities, strangeness of one country might not be identified in another country. It is not possible to trace the counties who have the similar cultural peculiarities. People too would have their own distinctive features and this makes the study more difficult and less clear. Indirectness of the observations is not appreciated by many social scientists. They feel that study becomes rather impersonal and lack lustre. They argue that studies conducted on Sociology should be more personal and connected to humanity, instead of raking up a cluster of figures. Comparative study has emerged as one of the biggest and much used tools of sociological research. While conducting either an evaluation or study, it is much easier and clearer to have another standard to compare it with. If there is no way of measuring it, the study does not become clear. As it is, Sociology is such a branch of study that faces criticism, as everything in it is lucid and a kind of myth making. These studies provide a firm basis against which the other details could be checked and they provide a checking point. Study by comparison has its own drawbacks. Circumstances may not be similar. Objects may not be similar. End product could be different. Atmosphere could be different. Circumstances could be altered every now and then. It is not possible to keep the same kind of circumstances endlessly as these studies could go on for years at times. Social atmosphere had been mercurial and it is too much to expect that they would remain static to oblige the social scientists. The standard set may be a difficult one. It might vary later or many more changes and alterations could be demanded. There might not be much similarity between the circumstances. Comparative ethnic studies is one of those areas where it is impossible to find a similarity between the communities and yet, a researcher is forced to find some similarities at least. But it is an accepted fact that ethnic societies could never have similar customs or background. Tensions, ancestry could never be the same, even though the future socie ties might be heading towards a depressing similarity. There is no study in sociology, which is not at least remotely compared with something else. It has become a regular practice of most of the evaluative studies. There are negative points. All the time, it is not easy to find exact or even passable comparisons. But social policy has made comparative study a necessity, as the Social Policies of other countries are compared with it either to its advantage or disadvantage all the time. It is impossible to find exact similarities so that the comparisons could be apt. As a result, the results cannot be accurate. Results would be more of speculative or hypothetical nature, than concrete one. Different types could be compared at the same time and time would be saved. All need not be given explanatory details. If one is given and the rest of them are just shown in the symbolic way, it should be enough. And this advantage makes the rest of them to be compared with one point and that way it is less confusing and more genuine. There are several ways of gaining an entry into the comparative method but none of them are simple and instantaneously gratifying. Mainly it started with cross-national studies. Some of these sources are located outside the arena of sociological research. There are many internal and external forces at work in a comparative study. The recent internationalization has led to many kinds of social, political, cultural and economical interaction beyond the boundaries of nations and countries. Intense mobility has taken over and people are not committed to one land any more. Internationalism could be seen in every field. In the same way, problems that used to be internal have got globalized. Very few internal problems have remained today and most of the problems are internationalized and sensationalised. Some people who are initiating the surveys may be having interest in more than one country and perhaps they would like to see if they could get a cross-country comparative study, which would be positively helpful in their own work. Politicians call for such studies to sum up their achievements. Comparing their achievement with another country might make them feel smug, if the other countrys achievements are comparatively insignificant. Politicians would definitely feel that their status internally and externally grows with that kind of comparison. Comparison study is also based on the theory of pluralism and not on totalitarianism. Another area that is coming under comparative study very often nowadays is the international eco system. After the conservation and concern for eco system have become a world concern, comparative study on this science has become imperative. Even though we do not have other worlds to compare the eco system with, comparison with various parts of the world and their eco systems have become a fruitful study that gives opportunity not only to improve the errors, but also to study the results of conversation activities. Still more precise comparative studies in this area are needed. This has become a major area of research based on comparative evaluation in recent years and this would go on improving. Even the reliability of these studies is improving fast. The national and international surveys and studies have filled up the databanks in every subject. New Techniques and methodologies have been employed recently. Social scientists have become more and more adept in their studies and Sociology, from more or less an abstract subject, is fast becoming a precise area. That is one more advantage of comparative study. It is capable of giving preciseness into any vague subject. New software of recent technologies could be used for the comparative study more easily. Technical issues involved in cross-national studies could be researched and evaluated without complication. Cross-national research has adopted various patterns and relationships. Comparative study has brought subjects like Sociology from the theoretical mode. Throughout the period during which we have been struggling with comparative research, one lesson learned is that whatever we do in the way of cross-national comparisons must be theoretically justified and cutting into countries theoretically is a complex process of the beginning of which we have only caught a glimpse, says Oyen, (1990, p. 3). Hence, comparative study does not reduce Sociology totally to a subject of statistics and figures, but keeps the theoretical part of it equally important. Looking from that point of view, it could be stated that comparative study furthers the subject without harming its traditional fabric. It is an additional asset and definitely not an usurper. Cross national research employing comparative study as a tool is mainly done to reduce variance that had been remained hitherto unexplained. Sociologists too are showing more and more preference towards conventional ways of research. Even though new methods are adapted, they are against abandoning the traditional ways of research. Macro sociological analysis and micro sociological methods combine both theory and practice. Normal behaviour and norms cannot be studied without acknowledging deviations from the normal. Actually, no social phenomenon can be isolated and studied without comparing it to other social phenomena, according to Oyen (p. 4). International social science has come a long way, mainly due to comparative study. After the advent of globalisation, social science has not remained curtailed to particular countries any more. It has become part of the world social science. Now Comparative studies have emerged victorious bringing the world societies together. This has brought up another advantage. Any kind of knowledge anywhere in the world is becoming the common property of the world in no time, and based on that, further knowledge gets built up continuously. The knowledge of the present generation, compared to the earlier generations is growing very fast. CASE STUDIES: 1. The case of abolishing child poverty: Child poverty is a depressing phenomenon, which is plaguing all the countries in the world in some way or other. Child poverty is connected with the parental poverty and so, the standard of living has to be improved to undermine the child poverty. At the same time, there are orphans, deprived children and it is not practical to connect all of it to the parental poverty. Child poverty is very different from country to country depending on the standard of living, resources, government care and many other social, economic and political causes. Still a comparative study of various countries would yield useful results for the ongoing struggle against child poverty. There is strong evidence that unemployment, even if not accompanied by poverty, has serious secondary effects. A recent Danish study shows that it doubles the chances of family break-ups, and much later, of unemployment among the children, (Esping-Anderson, 2002, p. 54). 2. Gender inequality: To a certain extent gender inequality exists in all societies Western or Eastern. In Western societies, it is found less virulent, whereas in traditional societies, it assumes threatening stature. A comparative cross-nation study, on the face of it, might look absolutely unnecessary and ambitious. But it does help. Taking other factors into consideration, combining the backgrounds and politico-social elements of each society, a cross national study would help the scholar to form a balanced view of the gender inequality of the entire world and that would give a proper perspective to his own research. 3. Social Policy: Over the years, social policy, especially in Western societies, has become an obsession and necessity. Other that countries like America and Canada, most of the Western countries are small in size with less population. Concentrating on this populations welfare, combined with the wealth these countries possess, it had not been impossible for them to concentrate and evolve an effective Social Policy. This does not mean that it is without flaws and drawbacks. But for the erstwhile colonies, it is still an uphill task to feed their enormous population, educate and clothe them while struggling continuously to improve the standard of living. So, they are totally dissimilar to each other. Still, through comparative research, it is noticed that there are many fields where the experience of one country could be used very effectively by another country to enormous advantage. Comparative studies on social policy comparing the Western countries to each other, comparing them col lectively with other developing countries, comparing the European social policy system with that of Canada or USA had been a continuous, thriving branch of the study for social studies. These studies should not be dismissed lightly. They form the basis of further improvement in social polities of all countries. They combine many factors available in all countries and even the so-called highly advanced countries could derive plenty of benefits from the practical knowledge of other lesser-known countries. There are different medical systems, hitherto not really popular. Bringing them to the forefront and conducting further research on them could be highly beneficial to other systems. They could be complimentary to other systems and effectively fill the knowledge gaps. There is no such thing called perfect and ultimate knowledge and there is always something to learn even from the most ancient societies. Comparative studies have unfailingly pointed out this wisdom. We are in an era in which rival forces, once again, promote their blueprints for a Good Society. Indeed, much suggests that we are heading towards yet another historical regime shift, according to Esping-Andersen, (2002, p.2). BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. Esping-Andersen, Gosta, (2002), Why we need a New Welfare State, Oxford University Press. 2. Elienne du plessis, (2004), Compulsion and Restitution, Stair Society, Edinburg. 3. Hensel, Howard, (2004), ed. Soverignity and the Global Community, Aldershot, Hants. 4. Hansen, ed ((2002), A Comparative study of six city state cultures, Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, Copenhagen. 5. Kamerman, Sheila and Kahn, Alfred, (1981), Child Care, Family Benefits and Working Parents, A study in Comparative Policy, Columbia University Press, New York. 6. Knorr-Cetina K. and Cicourel, A.V., eds., (1981), Advances in Social Theory and Methodology, Routledge Kegal Paul, London. 7. May, Tim, (1996), Situating Social Theory, Open University Press, Buckingham. 8. Oyen, Else, (2002), Comparative Methodology, Sage Publications Limited, London. 9. Quovertrus, Mads, (2002), A Comparative Study of Referendums, Manchester University Press. 10. Whiteford, G. (2003), A Comparative Study into the competitive Advantage Theories, (Thesis).

Impact Of Eastern European Immigration On United Kingdom Economics Essay

Impact Of Eastern European Immigration On United Kingdom Economics Essay Is the sentiment against immigration in the United Kingdom well-founded or is immigration used merely as a scapegoat for the economic failings of liberal democratic society? In a recent survey by Populus involving more than 5,000 respondents, two out of three white Britons thought that immigration was bad for UK, a view echoed by nearly 43% of Asians and 17% black Britons.  [1]  Recently, headlines have capitalised on the death of multiculturalism and how the whole policy on immigration has lost its allure.  [2]   Clearly, the immigration debate is a contentious one. The economic downturn is Europes central political and policy preoccupation. In such a climate, it is unsurprising that the value of economic migration has come under scrutiny. Concerns are hardly limited in the UK.  [3]  Rising immigration is also common to many industrialised countries, where the average share of immigrants in the labor force has increased from 4.3% to 7.2% between 1995 and 2005.  [4]  In the wake of the global war on terror and the economic recession, the prevalent feeling today is anti-immigrant and unfortunately, according to some rights groups, bordering on racism.  [5]  Lest we rely allow speculation and emotion to take precedence on the issue, it is best to investigate empirical evidence on the impact of immigration on the UK. Critics of immigration policy have contended that the presence of immigrants have created more negative than positive consequences for the UK economy, that the unpreceden ted rise of immigrant populations have caused downward pressure on wages, taken employment off native Britons, with immigrants going for a free-ride off UKs welfare system and the need for greater integration.  [6]  Most of these criticisms are based on speculations; empirical studies on the impact of immigration on the UK are relatively young and have mixed findings. Some studies support the contention that the immigration balloon has reduced wages for Britons  [7]  but several studies have also supported the positive contributions of immigrants in the UK economy  [8]  and whatever effects immigration may have on labour, are minimal.  [9]   One of the largest immigrant groups that have made their mark on UK society are Eastern Europeans those who were absorbed in the labour forces as a result of the accession of eight countries the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia to the European Union.  [10]  The geographical references Eastern Europe is used interchangeably with East Central Europe, the former Soviet Union, the Balkans, or the Baltic region. In the context of immigration and in the analysis being conducted in this thesis, Eastern Europe will refer to the so-called Accession 8 countries earlier mentioned. The influx of Eastern European migrants is due to several factors. Politically, EU policy is attributed to be the most significant driver of immigration in the UK. The free flow of migrant workers from Eastern Europe was fuelled by the EU Four Freedoms codified in a 2004 Directive.  [11]  While most of EU member countries came up with immigration restrictions, UK along with Sweden and Ireland did not. Migrant labourers from the A8 countries have come and gone freely in the UK since 2004. Aside from policy drivers, economic drivers also influenced migration patterns. So-called economic push and pull factors determine the expansion and retraction of migrant labour supply in the UK. Among the push factors include increasing poverty in the countries of origin, overpopulation, and excess blue-collar labour. Countries from the former Communist bloc suffered economically and had large segments of unemployed workers in their population coupled with dwindling social services. These diffic ulties are aggravated by a consistent growth in population, low levels of education, and lack of training.  [12]   Pull factors are those arising from labour demand in receiving countries such as the UK. Particular demographic characteristics could explain the pull in migrant labour from Eastern Europe. For instance, UK has seen declining fertility rates, an ageing population, and a rising level of highly educated professionals which is increasingly wary of undesirable menial jobs.  [13]  Undesirable jobs are characterised by low wages, long hours, and lack of job security those that appeal less to native Britons and more to immigrants. Jobs that fit into this category have been growing at a steady pace. Between 1979 and 1999, jobs belonging to the ten lowest paid occupations increased by 12 percent.  [14]  A small percentage of these workers receive social benefits; 3 out of 5 of them are not eligible for maternity or paternity leave; half of them do not get raises; and more than 50 percent did not receive sick pay. Studies have shown how around 90 percent of the lowest paid jobs in the UK are taken up by migrant workers.  [15]   Aside from the economic push and pull which motivate migration for most Eastern European workers, social and political factors also significant influence these decisions. Migration is also fuelled by the desire to reunite with family or build social networks. A study shows that the important of social networks and family cohesion cannot be discounted as significant factors influencing migration decisions.  [16]  New migrants are usually those who already have family members working as migrants in the UK and the decision to move is largely due to initial family migration. A report shows that the migration of Eastern Europeans to England is mainly through word-of-mouth and family networks. Family referrals are the most common routes to obtaining employment.  [17]  The importance of family networks is often seen as a boon or a bane by receiving communities. To the migrant communities, migration facilitated through family networks serve as foundation of community solidarity and f ormation. To receiving communities, such community formations may lead to the ghettoisation of migrant communities, giving worries that migrants do not assimilate enough with the mainstream society.  [18]  This, in effect, fuels suspicion and othering of migrant workers, and laying the basis for security concerns. As far as Eastern European immigrants are concerned, the common fear is the unregulated entry of migrants and asylum seekers may lead to increasing involvement with organised crime.  [19]   The most forceful argument made by immigration critics so far is to emphasise the negative consequences of Easter European immigration on labour. Saying that the influx of cheap labour from Central and Eastern Europe causes a downward pressure on wages has been asserted as early as 2004 by economists. In 1999, a study conducted by the Department of Education and Employment came up with conclusions supporting this fear: it found that if higher levels of unskilled workers came in, native Britons would be on the losing end and that if the opposite were true and migration instead attracted highly-skilled workers, native Britons would get the long end of the stick.  [20]  In addition, recent studies have also echoed the finding that the recent immigration levels have significantly reduced wages of British workers.  [21]  The disadvantages of immigration on job security of British workers have been largely hyped in the media  [22]  despite empirical studies generally contradict ing this claim. In fact, several economic papers have found that the migration flows prior to 2000 until 2005 have shown very little evidence of a negative impact. Specific studies on the impact of Eastern Europe immigrants have also stated that the general fear associated with migrant labour does not have empirical basis.  [23]  Econometric studies have also contradicted hypotheses that the increasing number of immigrants from the A8 countries have led to rising unemployment among British workers.  [24]  What is known about the impact of Eastern European immigration is little compared to U.S. studies examining migration consequences. Nevertheless, a substantial amount of scholarly literature is present. This present work reviews scholarly material and econometric studies related to the impacts of migration from A8 countries on the outcomes of native Britons in three spheres (1) labour, (2) culture, and (3) security. This paper uses the term immigrants and immigration to refer to people originated from any of the A8 countries to stay temporarily or permanently in the UK. For the purpose of this study, the term immigrants is used as a category under which labour migrants, asylum seekers, and political refugees all fall under. Research Questions The study focused on answering the following questions: What is the historical context of Eastern European immigration to the UK? What are the current migration trends in Eastern European immigration? What is the impact of Eastern European immigration on a) labour, b) culture, and c) security? Structure of the Paper This paper is structured into four main sections. The first section includes a brief description of the historical setting of migration in Europe. Moreover, the history of migration in Britain is particularly examined. The second chapter deals with the most recent migration patterns and migration trends of Eastern Europeans to the UK. It examined the rise and fall of migration numbers and account for possible factors that led to these trends. The third section presented a brief discussion on the major policies that have affected migration trends of Eastern Europeans toward the UK. The fourth section made a thorough review of the findings of scholarly studies particularly econometric studies that have dealt with the issue of immigration impacts. First, the impact on labour is examined whether or not immigration is negatively associated to outcomes of native workers. Second, the impact of Eastern European immigration in the context of assimilation, integration, and community cohesion is discussed. Third, security concerns on the so-called irregular workers and their ties to organised crime are examined. Historical Context of East European Immigration The United Kingdom is a region where immigration and emigration co-exist, and its British citizens have always been accommodating to the migrant inflow. There has been no clear evidence as to when migrants first came into the region. However, the post-war effect was the migration of the people from the New Commonwealth which was viewed as an influx of non-white races, such as Caribbeans, Indians and those from Bangladesh. The high migration was from 1950 to 1970 slowly made the UK a significant player in the European labour market. The migration has always been considered long-term or temporary.  [25]   Immigration to the UK began to increase when the government from the EU Accession countries, also referred to as the A8, have provided a policy that allowed migration from the A8 countries to the UK. The A8 countries are the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. Migrants from these regions have considered economic factors as one of the main reasons to move out of their respective nations into the United Kingdom, which has a relatively attractive economic status over the past years.  [26]   Migration from Eastern Europe began during the 1900s because of the Russian communist sovereign. This era was marked by a high flow of migrants from Russian territories, all determined to escape the difficulties brought about by a communist republic. It was recorded that migration was from Eastern to Western Europe, with few people returning to their original residence.  [27]  The primary estimate of migrants conducted by the Labour government was between 5,000 to 13,000, but the actual resultant population of migrants was far more than what was expected.  [28]   One such group is the Polish. The United Kingdom opened its doors to the Polish community to help Polish soldiers and support the British labour market. In 1939, migration from Poland to its neighbouring countries was due to the Soviet brutality and deportation. Polish soldiers were forced to reside outside the borders of their country to reform, and at the end of the war, some have decided to settle in the United Kingdom and even brought with them their families. The twentieth century marked the increased flow of Eastern European migrants in different nations in Europe, and even outside Europe, particularly United States and Australia. The free movement after the war resulted in the reconfiguration of the political structure in Europe, and 2004 has been marked as the turning point for the Polish migration to the United Kingdom.  [29]   In 2004, the UK has experienced a fast inflow of migrant workers from the A8 countries, and these workers have been given the freedom to migrate and work in the UK even without any employment permit. This was a political strategy to get workers for low-paying jobs and empty slots for skilled workers.  [30]   Prior to the May 1st accession of the A8 workers, the Workers Registration Scheme [WRS] was created to modulate the access of the A8 workers to different welfare benefits and gather data that will aid in regulating the inflows and creation of policies. The WRS has mandated that A8 workers who have acquired jobs in the UK in a period of one month must register with the Home Office.  [31]   Asylum seekers have also been consistently being monitored by the UK government, Roma from the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Romania have entered the UK borders by placing themselves under the Eurostar train or by hiding themselves in enormous containers being delivered to the UK.  [32]  In the early 1980s, 150,000 asylum seekers migrate per year, sharply increased in 1992 to 850,000 and went down again to 380,000 in 1997. The sharp increase in the number of asylum seekers in 1992 was brought about by the collapse of Soviet Union and other issues related to the split of Yugoslavia.  [33]   In general, the East to West migration of Eastern Europeans was brought about by the change from communism to a socialist type of government, the removal of the restrictions to travel across the region and the re-delineation of individual rights.  [34]  Aside from the political changes, the accession of the ten new countries, including the A8 countries, to the European Union on May 2004 and expansion of the EU further increased the number of immigrants to the UK, Sweden and Ireland. The three mentioned countries are the only regions which have freely opened its labour market to the A8 migrant workers upon accession in 2004. They have been able to get jobs without restrictions and were provided the right to live like UK citizens. Moreover, these migrant workers can be joined by their dependants.  [35]   Factors affecting the Immigration of European to the UK Economic factors have been regarded as the most significant motivating factor for individuals to migrate. It is a fact that the economic status in Central and Eastern European countries have changed from the communist period. The communist period was marked by a low employment rate and low wages for the working population. This has led to an unstable economy and low per capita income during that era. These factors have led individuals to consider migrating to other regions to improve their lifestyle and economic status, and minimise the effect of being deprived economically in their own countries.  [36]   Globalisation is a significant aspect in the migration trends as the improvement and economic growth of London, as paralleled to that of New York City, has made the migrants more mobile because the transportation cost has been reduced and people have become more appreciative of the employment opportunities that are available in the region. The decrease in the cost for transportation has encouraged the movement of migrant workers into the UK and has enforced its labour market.  [37]   The high employment rate and high per capita income are the main reasons why A8 countries migrate to the UK. Improvement in the GDP and employment rates in the A8 countries may eventually result to lower migrations to the UK. Similar to situations in other countries, the individual assesses the economic state of the country and compares the benefits and disadvantages of possible migration. If there is more to gain compared to that of staying in their own countries, these individuals have greater probability to migrate.  [38]   Two general factors affecting professionals and skilled people to migrate have been shown to be correlated, namely the goal to leave and the realisation of finding what they want somewhere else. The external force which serves as the driving mechanism makes individuals think of leaving their home country. These external forces are commonly in the form of job dissatisfaction resulting from low salaries or less benefits in their work area; unemployment or underemployment and uncontrollable social and political disturbances that disrupts the economic state of the individual. The realisation of finding what these individuals want is also economic in aspect, just the same as most of the reasons why they migrate. Being able to find a better-paying job, as well as getting a more specialised exposure to the field of work are appealing to those workers who are currently unsatisfied. Several factors will then be considered in terms of the location for migration. Some of these factors are job o pportunity, liberalised immigration policies, language barriers, salary, standard and cost of living, better job experience and fulfillment, environmental factors and government policies with regards to the acceptance of family members for petition. All these factors are inter-related, but different cultures and individual perspectives also affects the decisions being made by the professionals when migration is being considered.  [39]   Based on the same survey conducted by the Home Office, the UK was chosen by only 42% of their respondents as the most probable location to migrate, aside from United States, New Zealand, Australia or Europe. The UK culture and location as well as the language in the region has also been considered as significant factors for migration. The main advantage of the UK against USA was that the UK was the first to open its gates to migrant workers, providing equal job opportunities, was then seen as a provider of a less stressful work environment and that the provided jobs were better in terms of the job satisfaction and fulfillment of the migrant workers. Factors such as the intense climate, problems in procurement of work permits and distance from loved ones have been identified to reduce migration to the UK.  [40]   Political factors that caused migration have been common to both the Central and Eastern Europe. The migration policies that have been implemented in the early 1990s have significantly affected migration flow. Some of these policies are the liberalisation for visas within countries in Europe and legal entry of the working immigrants. These policies have dramatically encouraged citizens from other European regions, as well as the non-EU migrants to try to migrate to the first world countries in Europe, including the UK. Humanitarian factors such as in the case of refugees have been considered one of the reasons for immigration. The number of refugees greatly depends on the violence in the events taking place in their respective national residence. Some of these events are Coup detat  [41]  , government crises, guerrilla warfare and civil war; among which, civil war generated the most number of refugees with an estimate of 35 refugees for every one thousand of the population. The United Nations High Commission for Refugees [UNHCR] in the Geneva Convention for Refugees has referred to a refugee as someone who can no longer return to the country that he or she normally resides in because of possible persecution. The UNHCR have identified that most of these refugees are in Third World countries.  [42]   The refugees, in the course of their nations history, have moved farther away from their home where there is economic and political conflict, as well as threats to their safety, heading to the closest neighbouring country where they seek for temporary escape. However, most refugees go back to their homes as soon as the war ends because of the difficulties that they encounter in the refugee camps. The most appealing escape from the refugee camps is to cross borders of the neighbouring countries, wherein the refugees are provided only temporary resettlement and restricted rights in the countries that they have escaped to. These temporary privileges are the refugees reasons for both the migration from and return to their respective homes.  [43]   The long process required for refugees to seek protection in neighbouring countries takes a very long time and this has also been a problem because in most cases, smuggling and illegal entry into the neighbouring regions occur.  [44]  It has been estimated that 50% of the asylum seekers have been reported to enter UK, Germany and France by smuggling operations; and these refugees needed to pay at least $4000 to be able to get smuggled through Europe.  [45]  Data gathered about the asylum seekers show the uncertainties that are being encountered by these people who really have no idea of how and where their destination will be as the route that the smuggling operations take are dependent on the tightness of the security in the regions they are about to cross.  [46]  A 13-year pooled regression study  [47]  on 20 countries showed that factors such as employment rate, number of foreign nationals and the destination countrys liberalised perspective on immigration and acce ptance of asylum seekers are the key determinants for immigration. The increased influx of working migrants and asylum seekers to the UK have led to the formation of a point-based system to properly control the movement of immigrants into the UK. This type of system aimed at giving more restrictions to those who intend to apply for legal immigration in the UK, and this system also minimises the number of possible refugees that will enter the UK illegally.  [48]  The main goal of this point system is to slow down the population of UK, with the aim of controlling the pace of immigration. Types and Number of European Immigrants in the UK Immigration in the UK has been reported to be half of the total British population growth from 1991 to 2001. Some surveys have evaluated that most of the immigrants have settled in London, and Wembley has even reached half the population in its region. Three areas have also been identified in which there was a marked rise in the number of immigrants, namely Scotland, South-West and North-East England.  [49]   The number of working migrants in the UK has increased from 30,000 in the 1990s to about 80,000 in the early 2000. The labour market of the UK varies from EU nationals to non-EU nationals, but the most of which belong to the A8 countries. Professionals from other regions with the aim of improving their economic situation in first world regions also make up the immigrant population in the UK, but 90% of the aspiring immigrants are students and asylum-seekers.  [50]  The movement of foreign workers in the UK have shown that about 20% are IT professionals and about 8% work for financial services.  [51]   In 2006, the estimated number of refugees all over the world is about 12 million. This is a 400% increase compared to the estimated number during the 1970s, and is still expected to increase further based on the trends in the past decades. Furthermore, approximately 50,000 to 500,000 asylum seekers have resettled in developed countries from 1970 to 2006 (Hatton, 2004). Polish nationalities have been considered as one of the most significant ethnic population of the migrants in the UK. Being approximated at about 540,000 migrants, the Polish community is expected to grow even more in terms of the movement of the population from their country to the UK.  [52]  However, in 2007, despite the 237,000 increase in immigrants in the UK, there was a recorded decline in the number of Polish migrant workers going into the UK. The same trend is also observed with that of Latvia.  [53]   In 2009, a decrease in migration was observed, from 160,000 to 142,000, however, the data gathered did not include the number of asylum seekers, as well as the mobility of migrants in the Northern Ireland. A 59% increase was observed in the number of people that have become UK citizens, amounting to 203,790 individuals.  [54]   The increase in the number of migrants has not been only on the asylum seekers, but almost all categories of the immigrants currently living in the UK. The influx of migrants has been associated with the improvement of the economy in terms of employment opportunities, and rise in GDP. Asylum seekers, illegal aliens and overstayers were shown to be related to economic and political issues. The entry of illegal migrants is not feasible to be empirically measured but with the strong connection between migration and economic status, the number of illegal migrants is assumed to be increasing.  [55]  

Saturday, July 20, 2019

divorce decree :: essays research papers

[divorce caption]   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  FINAL DECREE OF DIVORCE   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  On ______ the Court heard this case. Appearances   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Petitioner, *{{______}}*, *[appeared in person and through attorney of record, [name]*{{[name]}}*, and announced ready for trial.]**[did not appear in person but has agreed to the entry of this order as evidenced by Petitioner's signature below.]*   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Respondent, *{{______}}*, *[appeared in person and announced ready for trial.]**[appeared through attorney of record, [name]*{{[name]}}*, and announced ready for trial.]**[appeared in person and through attorney of record, [name]*{{[name]}}*, and announced ready for trial.]**[although duly and properly cited, did not appear and wholly made default.]**[waived issuance and service of citation by waiver duly filed and did not otherwise appear.]**[has made a general appearance and has agreed to the terms of this judgment to the extent permitted by law, as evidenced by the signatures of Respondent and attorney for Respondent appearing below.]**[has made a general appearance and was duly notified of trial but failed to appear and defaulted.]* *[*[*[  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Also appearing was ______, appointed guardian ad litem of the child[ren] the subject of this suit. ]**[  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Also appearing was ______, appointed attorney ad litem of the child[ren] the subject of this suit. ]**[  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Also appearing was ______, appointed amicus attorney for the child[ren] the subject of this suit. ]*]**[  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Also appearing was ______, appointed attorney ad litem for *{{______}}*, who received process by substituted service but did not otherwise answer or appear. ]*]*Record *[  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The making of a record of testimony was waived by the parties with the consent of the Court. ]**[  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The record of testimony was duly reported by *[______, ______]**[the court reporter for ______]*. ]*Jurisdiction and Domicile   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Court finds that the pleadings of [Petitioner/Respondent] are in due form and contain all the allegations, information, and prerequisites required by law. The Court, after receiving evidence, finds that it has jurisdiction of this case and of all the parties and that at least sixty days have elapsed since the date the suit was filed. The Court finds that, at the time this suit was filed, *[[Petitioner/Respondent] had been a domiciliary of Texas for the preceding six-month period and a resident of the county in which this suit was filed for the preceding ninety-day period.]**[Petitioner was domiciled in another state or nation and Respondent had been a domiciliary of Texas for the preceding six-month period and was a resident of this county in which the suit was filed.]* All persons entitled to citation were properly cited. Jury *[  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A jury was waived, and questions of fact and of law were submitted to the Court.