Monday, September 30, 2019

Single Phase Transformer

Transformer BEE2123 ELECTRICAL MACHINES Mohd Rusllim Bin Mohamed Ext: 2080 A1-E10-C09 [email  protected] edu. my  © MRM 05 Learning Outcomes ? At the end of the lecture, student should to: ? Understand the principle and the nature of static machines of transformer. Perform an analysis on transformers which their principles are basic to the understanding of electrical machines. ?  © MRM 05 Introduction ? ? ? ? A transformer is a static machines. The word „transformer? comes form the word „transform?.Transformer is not an energy conversion device, but is a device that changes AC electrical power at one voltage level into AC electrical power at another voltage level through the action of magnetic field, without a change in frequency. It can be either to step-up or step down. Transmission System TX1 TX1 Generation Station 33/13. 5kV 13. 5/6. 6kV Distributions TX1 TX1  © MRM 05 6. 6kV/415V Consumer Transformer Construction ? Two types of iron-core construction: a) b) C ore – type construction Shell – type construction ? Core – type construction  © MRM 05 Transformer Construction ? Shell – type construction MRM 05 Ideal Transformer ? An ideal transformer is a transformer which has no loses, i. e. it? s winding has no ohmic resistance, no magnetic leakage, and therefore no I2 R and core loses. ? However, it is impossible to realize such a transformer in practice. ? Yet, the approximate characteristic of ideal transformer will be used in characterized the practical transformer. N1 : N2 I1 V1 E1 E2 I2 V2 V1 – Primary Voltage V2 – Secondary Voltage E1 – Primary induced Voltage E2 – secondary induced Voltage N1:N2 – Transformer ratio  © MRM 05 Transformer Equation ? Faraday? s Law states that, ?If the flux passes through a coil of wire, a voltage will be induced in the turns of wire. This voltage is directly proportional to the rate of change in the flux with respect of time. Vind ? Emf ind d? (t ) dt Lenz? s Law If we have N turns of wire, Vind ? Emf ind d? (t ) ? ?N dt  © MRM 05 Transformer Equation ? For an ac sources, ? Let V(t) = Vm sin? t i(t) = im sin? t Since the flux is a sinusoidal function; ?(t ) ? ? m sin ? t Then: Therefore: d? m sin ? t Vind ? Emf ind ? ? N dt ? ? N m cos ? t Thus: Vind ? Emfind (max) ? N m ? 2? fN? m N m 2? fN? m ? ? ? 4. 44 fN? m 2 2  © MRM 05 Emf ind ( rms) Transformer Equation For an ideal transformer E1 4. 44 fN1? m †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ (i) ? In the equilibrium condition, both the input power will be equaled to the output power, and this condition is said to ideal condition of a transformer. E2 4. 44 fN 2? m Input power ? output power V1 I1 cos ? ? V2 I 2 cos ? ? V1 I 2 ? V2 I1 ? From the ideal transformer circuit, note that, E1 ? V1 and E2 ? V2 ? Hence, substitute in (i)  © MRM 05 Transformer Equation Therefore, E1 N1 I 2 ? ? ? a E2 N 2 I1 Where, „a? is the Voltage Transformation Ratio ; which will determine whether the transformer is going to be step-up or step-down For a >1 For a E2 E1 < E2  © MRM 05Step-down Step-up Transformer Rating ? Transformer rating is normally written in terms of Apparent Power. ? Apparent power is actually the product of its rated current and rated voltage. VA ? V1I1 ? V2 I 2 ? Where, ? I1 and I2 = rated current on primary and secondary winding. ? V1 and V2 = rated voltage on primary and secondary winding. ? Rated currents are actually the full load currents in transformer  © MRM 05 Example 1. 1. 5kVA single phase transformer has rated voltage of 144/240 V. Finds its full load current. Solution 1500 I1FL ? ? 10. 45 A 144 1500 I 2 FL ? ? 6A 240  © MRM 05 Example 2.A single phase transformer has 400 primary and 1000 secondary turns. The net cross-sectional area of the core is 60m2. If the primary winding is connected to a 50Hz supply at 520V, calculate: a) The induced voltage in the secondary winding b) The peak value of flux densit y in the core Solution N1=400 V1=520V A=60m2 N2=1000 V2=?  © MRM 05 Example 2 (Cont) a) Know that, N1 V1 a? ? N 2 V2 400 520 ? 1000 V2 V2 ? 1300V b) Emf, E ? 4. 44 fN ? m ? 4. 44 fN ? Bm ? A? known, E1 ? 520V , E2 ? 1300V E ? 4. 44 fN ? Bm ? A? 520 ? 4. 44(50)(400)( Bm )(60) Bm ? 0. 976 x10 ? 5Wb / m 2 (T )  © MRM 05 Example 3.A 25kVA transformer has 500 turns on the primary and 50 turns on the secondary winding. The primary is connected to 3000V, 50Hz supply. Find: Full load primary and secondary current b) The induced voltage in the secondary winding c) The maximum flux in the core Solution VA = 25kVA N1=500 V1=3000V N2=50 V2=? a)  © MRM 05 Example 3 (Cont) a) Know that, VA ? V ? I I1FL VA 25 ? 103 ? ? ? 8. 33 A V1 3000 b) Induced voltage, N1 I 2 a? ? N 2 I1 ? 8. 33 ? I 2 ? 500? ? ? 83. 3 A ? 50 ? I1 ? 8. 33 ? E2 ? E1 ? 3000? ? ? 300V I2 ? 83. 3 ? c) Max flux E ? 4. 44 fN ? 300 ? 4. 44(50)(50)? ? ? 27mWb  © MRM 05Practical Transformer (Equivalent Circuit) I1 R1 X1 Ic V1 RC Io I1 ’ Im Load Xm E1 E2 V2 N1: N2 I2 R2 X2 V1 = primary supply voltage V2 = 2nd terminal (load) voltage E1 = primary winding voltage E2 = 2nd winding voltage I1 = primary supply current I2 = 2nd winding current I1? = primary winding current Io = no load current Ic = core current Im = magnetism current R1= primary winding resistance R2= 2nd winding resistance X1= primary winding leakage reactance X2= 2nd winding leakage reactance Rc  © MRM 05= core resistance Xm= magnetism reactance Single Phase Transformer (Referred to Primary) ? Actual MethodI1 R1 X1 Ic Io I2 ’ Im Load RC Xm E1 E2 V2 R2’ X2’ N1: N2 I2 V1 ? N1 ? R2 ‘ ? ? ? N ? R2 ? ? 2? ? N1 ? X2'? ? ? N ? X2 ? ? 2? 2 2 OR R2 ‘ ? a R2 2 ?N ? ‘ E1 ? V2 ? ? 1 ? V2 ? N ? ? 2? I I2 ‘ ? 2 a  © MRM 05 OR V2 ‘ ? aV2 OR X 2 ‘ ? a2 X 2 Single Phase Transformer (Referred to Primary) ? Approximate Method I1 R1 X1 R2’ X2’ Ic V1 RC Io I2 ’ Im Load Xm E1 E2 N1: N2 I2 V2 ?N ? R2 ‘ ? ? 1 ? R2 ? N ? ? 2? ?N ? X2'? ? 1 ? X2 ? N ? ? 2? 2 2 OR R2 ‘ ? a R2 2 OR X 2 ‘ ? a2 X 2 ?N ? ‘ E1 ? V2 ? ? 1 ? V2 ? N ? ? 2? I I2 ‘ ? 2 a  © MRM 05 OR V2 ‘ ? aV2 Single Phase Transformer (Referred to Primary) ? Approximate Method I1 R01 X01V1 aV2 In some application, the excitation branch has a small current compared to load current, thus it may be neglected without causing serious error. ?N ? R2 ‘ ? ? 1 ? R2 ? N ? ? 2? ?N ? X2'? ? 1 ? X2 ? N ? ? 2? 2 2 OR R2 ‘ ? a R2 2 ?N ? ‘ V2 ? ? 1 ? V2 ? N ? ? 2? OR V2 ‘ ? aV2 OR X 2 ‘ ? a2 X 2 R01 ? R1 ? R2 ‘  © MRM 05 X 01 ? X 1 ? X 2 ‘ Single Phase Transformer (Referred to Secondary) ? Actual Method I1 ’ R1’ X1’ Ic Io I2 Im Xm’ R2 X2 V1 a RC’ V2 ?N ? R1 R1 ‘ ? ? 2 ? R1 OR R1 ‘ ? 2 ? N ? a ? 1? ?N ? X 1 ‘ ? ? 2 ? X 1 OR ? N ? ? 1? 2 2 ?N ? V V1 ‘ ? ? 2 ? V1 OR V1 ‘ ? 1 ? N ? a ? 1?  © MRM 05 X1' ? X1 a2Single Phase Transformer (Referred to Secondary) ? Approximate Method I1 ’ R02 X02 Neglect the excitation branch V1 a V2 R02 ? R1 ‘? R2 X 02 ? X 1 ‘? X 2 ?N ? R1 R1 ‘ ? ? 2 ? R1 OR R1 ‘ ? 2 ? N ? a ? 1? ?N ? X 1 ‘ ? ? 2 ? X 1 OR ? N ? ? 1? 2 2 ? N2 ? V ? ?V1 OR V1 ‘ ? 1 V1 ‘ ? ? N1 ? a ? ? I1 ‘ ? aI1  © MRM 05 X1' ? X1 a2 Example 4. For the parameters obtained from the test of 20kVA 2600/245 V single phase transformer, refer all the parameters to the high voltage side if all the parameters are obtained at lower voltage side side. Rc = 3. 3? , Xm =j1. 5? , R2 = 7. 5? , X2 = j12. 4? Solution Given Rc = 3. 3? , Xm =j1. 5? , R2 = 7. ? , X2 = j12. 4?  © MRM 05 Example 4 (Cont) i) Refer to H. V side (primary) E1 V1 2600 a? ? ? ? 10. 61 E2 V2 245 R2 ‘ ? a 2 R2 2 V2 ‘ ? aV2 To refer parameters to primary, Use R2? =(10. 61)2 (7. 5) = 844. 65? , X2? =j(10. 61)2 (12. 4) = 1. 396k? Rc? and X c? becoz parameters were read from secondary side Rc? =(10. 61)2 (3. 3) = 371. 6? , Xm? =j(10. 61)2 (1. 5) = j168. 9 ?  © MRM 05 2nd I I2 ‘ ? 2 X2'? a X2 a Example (What if.. ) 4. For the parameters obtained from the test of 20kVA 245/2600 V single phase transformer, refer all the parameters to the high voltage side if all the parameters are obtained at lower voltage side side.Rc = 3. 3? , Xm =j1. 5? , R2 = 7. 5? , X2 = j12. 4? Solution Given Rc = 3. 3? , Xm =j1. 5? , R2 = 7. 5? , X2 = j12. 4?  © MRM 05 Power Factor ? Power factor = angle between Current and Voltage, cos ? V I ? I ? = -ve Lagging ? V I V ? = +ve Leading ?=1 unity  © MRM 05 Example 5. A 10 kVA single phase transformer 2000/440V has primary resistance and reactance of 5. 5? and 12? respectively, while the resistance and reactance of secondary winding is 0. 2? and 0. 45 ? respectively. Calculate: i. ii. The parameter referred to high voltage side and draw the equivalent circuit The approximate value of seco ndary voltage at full load of 0. lagging power factor, when primary supply is 2000V.  © MRM 05 Example 5 (Cont) Solution R1=5. 5 ? , X1=j12 ? R2=0. 2 ? , X2=j0. 45 ? i) Refer to H. V side (primary) E V 2000 a? 1 ? 1 ? ? 4. 55 E2 V2 440 I1 R01 9. 64 V1 X01 21. 32 aV2 R2? =(4. 55)2 (0. 2) = 4. 14? , X2? =j(4. 55)20. 45 = j9. 32 ? Therefore, R01=R1+R2? =5. 5 + 4. 13 = 9. 64 ?  © MRM X01=X1+X2? =j12 + j9. 32 = j21. 3205? Example 5 (Cont) Solution ii) Secondary voltage p. f = 0. 8 Cos ? = 0. 8 ? =36. 87o 10 ? 103VA Full load, I FL ? ? 5A 2000V From eqn. cct, 1 V1? 0o ? ( R01 ? jX 01)( I1? ? ? o ) ? aV2 2000? 0o ? (9. 64 ? j 21. 32)(5? ? 36. 87 o ) ? (4. 5)V2 V2 ? 422. 6? 0. 8o  © MRM 05 Transformer Losses ? i. ii. Generally, there are two types of losses; Iron losses :- occur in core parameters Copper losses :- occur in winding resistance i. Iron Losses Piron ? Pc ? ( I c) 2 Rc ? Popen circuit ii. Copper Losses Pcopper ? Pcu ? ( I 1) 2 R1 ? ( I 2) 2 R2 ? Pshort circuit or if referr ed , Pcu ? ( I 1) 2 R01 ? ( I 2) 2 R02  © MRM 05 Poc and Psc will be discusses later in transformer test Transformer Efficiency ? To check the performance of the device, by comparing the output with respect to the input. ? The higher the efficiency, the better the system. Efficiency ,? Output Power ? 100% Input Power Pout ? ?100% Pout ? Plosses ? V2 I 2 cos ? ?100% V2 I 2 cos ? ? Pc ? Pcu ? ( fullload) ? ?(load n ) ? VA cos ? ?100% VA cos ? ? Pc ? Pcu nVA cos ? ?100% 2 nVA cos ? ? Pc ? n Pcu Where, if ? load, hence n = ? , ? load, n= ? , 90% of full load, n =0. 9 Where Pcu = Psc Pc = Poc  © MRM 05 nmax ? ? Poc VArated ? P ? ? sc ? ? ? VArated ? ? ? ? Pc VArated ? P ? ? cu ? ?VArated ? ? ? Voltage Regulation ? The measure of how well a power transformer maintains constant secondary voltage over a range of load currents is called the transformer's voltage regulation ?The purpose of voltage regulation is basically to determine the percentage of voltage drop between no lo ad and full load.  © MRM 05 Voltage Regulation ? For calculation of Voltage Regulation, terminologies may be quite confusing, hence you need always think in current, I (A) point of view â€Å"Full-load† means the point at which the transformer ? is operating at maximum permissible secondary current ? When connected to load, current being drawn, hence Voltage drop) ? ? No Load means at Rated At no load, current almost zero, so takes Voltage at rated  © MRM 05 value – think like an open circuit) Voltage Regulation Voltage Regulation can be determine based on 3 methods: a) b) c) Basic Definition Short – circuit Test Equivalent Circuit  © MRM 05 Voltage Regulation (Basic Defination) ? In this method, all parameter are being referred to primary or secondary side. ? Can be represented in either ? Down – voltage Regulation Note that: VNL ? VFL V . R ? ?100% VNL (at Rated Value) VNL ? Up – Voltage Regulation VNL ? VFL V . R ? ?100% VFL  © MRM 05 Vo ltage Regulation (Short – circuit Test) ? In this method, direct formula can be used. V . R ? V . R ? Vsc cos sc ? ? p. f ? V1 ?100% If s/c test on primary side Vsc cos c ? ? p. f ? V2 ?100% If s/c test on primary side Note that: „–? is for Lagging power factor „+? is for Leading power factor Must check that Isc must equal to IFL (I at Rated), otherwise  © MRM 05 can? t use this formula Voltage Regulation (Equivalent Circuit ) ? In this method, the parameters must be referred to primary or secondary V . R ? I1 R01 cos ? p. f ? X 01 sin ? p. f V1 I 2 R02 cos ? p. f ? X 02 sin ? p. f V2 ? 100% 100% If referred to primary side V . R ? ? If referred to secondary side Note that: „+? is for Lagging power factor „–? is for Leading power factor  © MRM 05 assume j terms ~0Comment on VR ? Purely Resistive Load ? > 3 % is considered poor VR Normally poor than Resistive Load ? Inductive Load ? ? Example of application Desired Poor VR ? ? Disc harge lighting AC arc welders  © MRM 05 Example 6. In example 5, determine the Voltage regulation by using down – voltage regulation and equivalent circuit. Question 5 A 10 kVA single phase transformer 2000/440V and V1? 0o ? ( R01 ? jX 01)( I1? ? ? o ) ? aV2 2000? 0o ? (9. 64 ? j 21. 32)(5? ? 36. 87 o ) ? (4. 55)V2 V2 ? 422. 6? 0. 8o  © MRM 05 Example Solution Down – voltage Regulation Know that, V2FL=422. 6V V2NL=440V Therefore, V .R ? VNL ? VFL ? 100% VNL 440 ? 422. 6 ? ?100% 440 ? 3. 95%  © MRM 05 Example 6 (Cont) Equivalent Circuit I1=5A R01=9. 64? X01 = 21. 32? V1=2000V, 0. 8 lagging p. f V . R ? I1 R01 cos ? p. f ? X 01 sin ? p. f V1 ? 100% 5 ? 9. 64(0. 8) ? 21. 32(0. 6)? ? ? 100% 2000 ? 5. 12%  © MRM 05 Example A short circuit test was performed at the secondary side of 10kVA, 240/100V transformer. Determine the voltage regulation at 0. 8 lagging power factor if Vsc =18V Isc =100 Psc=240W Solution Check: 7. I FL2 I FL2 VA 10000 ? ? ? 100 A V 100 ? I sc , Hence, we can use short-circuit method V . R ? Vsc cos sc ? ? p. ? V2  © MRM 05 ?100% Example 7 (Cont) V . R ? Vsc cos sc ? ? p. f ? V2 ? 100% Given p. f ? 0. 8 Hence, ? p. f ? cos ? 1 0. 8 ? 36. 87 o Know that , Psc ? Vsc I sc cos ? sc ? sc ? cos ? 1 ? ? ? Psc ? ? ? ? Vsc I sc ? 18 cos 82. 34o ? 36. 87 o V . R ? ?100% 100  © MRM 05 ? 12. 62% ? ? 240 ? ? ? 82. 34 o ? cos ? 1 ? ? (18)(100) ? ? ? ? Example 8. The following data were obtained in test on 20kVA 2400/240V, 60Hz transformer. Vsc =72V Isc =8. 33A Psc=268W Poc=170W The measuring instrument are connected in the primary side for short circuit test. Determine the voltage regulation for 0. 8 lagging p. f. use all 3 methods), full load efficiency and half load efficiency.  © MRM 05 Example 8 (Cont) V . R ? Vsc cos sc ? ? p. f ? V2 ? 100% Given p. f ? 0. 8 Hence, ? p. f ? cos ?1 0. 8 ? 36. 87 o Know that , Psc ? Vsc I sc cos ? sc ? Psc ? ? sc ? cos ? ?V I ? ? ? sc sc ? ? 268 ? ? ? 63. 4o ? cos ? 1 ? ? (72)(8. 33) ? ? ? ?1 Z sc ? Vsc 72 ? ? 8. 64? I sc 8. 33 ? Z sc ? 8. 64? 63. 4o ? 3. 86 ? j 7. 72 ? R01 ? jX 01 because connected to primary side.  © MRM 05 Example 8 (Cont) 1. Short Circuit method , V . R ? Vsc cos sc ? ? p. f ? V1 ? 100% 72 cos 63. 4o ? 36. 87 o V . R ? ?100% ? 2. 68% 2400 ? ? 2. Equivalent circuit , V .R ? I1 R01 cos ? p. f ? X 01 sin ? p. f V1 ? ? ? 100% 20000 ? 3. 86(0. 8) ? 7. 72(0. 6)? 2400 ? 100% ? 2. 68% 2400  © MRM 05 Example 8 (Cont) 3. Basic Defination , V1 ? I1Z 01 ? aV2 ? 20000 ? 2400 ? o? o 2400? 0 ? ? ? ? 36. 87 ? 8. 64? 63. 4 ? ? ? V2 ? 2400 ? ? 240 ? V2 ? 233. 58? 0. 79 o V o ? ? VNL ? VFL V . R ? ?100% VNL ? 240 ? 233. 58 ? 100% 240 ? 2. 68%  © MRM 05 Example 8 (Cont) ?( full load) (1)(20000)(0. 8) ? ?100% ? 97. 34% 2 (1)(20000)(0. 8) ? 170 ? (1) (268) (0. 5)(20000)(0. 8) ? ?100% ? 97. 12% 2 (0. 5)(20000)(0. 8) ? 170 ? (0. 5) (268) ?( half load)  © MRM 05 Measurement on Transformer ? i. ii.There are two test conducted on transformer. Open Circuit Test Shor t Circuit test ? ? ? The test is conducted to determine the parameter of the transformer. Open circuit test is conducted to determine magnetism parameter, Rc and Xm. Short circuit test is conducted to determine the copper parameter depending where the test is performed. If performed at primary, hence the parameters are R01 and ©X0105and vice-versa. MRM Open-Circuit Test ? ? Voc Ic Measurement are at low voltage side Poc ? Voc I oc cos ? oc From a given test parameters, ? ?1 ? P oc Voc ? oc ? cos ? Voc ? V I ? ? ? oc oc ? I sin? Im Ic oc oc Ioc RcXm ?oc Ioccos? oc Hence, I c ? I oc cos ? oc ? Im I m ? I oc sin ? oc Then, Rc and X m , Voc Voc Rc ? , Xm ? Ic Im Note: If the question asked parameters referred to high voltage side, the parameters (Rc and Xm) obtained need to be referred to high voltage side  © MRM 05 Short-Circuit Test ? ? Measurement are at high voltage side If the given test parameters are taken on primary side, R01 and X01 will be obtained. Or else, viceversa. R01 X01 Psc ? Vsc I sc cos ? sc ? Psc ? ? sc ? cos ? ?V I ? ? ? sc sc ? Hence, Vsc Z 01 ? sc I sc ? 1  © MRM 05 For a case referred to Primary side Z 01 ? R01 ? jX 01 Example 9.Given the test on 500kVA 2300/208V are as follows: Poc = 3800W Psc = 6200W Voc = 208V Vsc = 95V Ioc = 52. 5A Isc = 217. 4A Determine the transformer parameters and draw equivalent circuit referred to high voltage side. Also calculate appropriate value of V2 at full load, the full load efficiency, half load efficiency and voltage regulation, when power factor is 0. 866 lagging.  © MRM 05 [1392? , 517. 2? , 0. 13? , 0. 44? , 202V, 97. 74%, 97. 59%, 3. 04%] Example 9 (Cont) From Open Circuit Test, Poc ? Voc I oc cos ? oc ? 3800 ? ? ? 69. 6o ? oc ? cos ? ? (52. 5)(208) ? ? ? I c ? I oc cos ? oc ? 1 Voc Ic Iocsin? oc IocIoccos? oc ? 52. 5 cos 69. 6o ? 18. 26 A I m ? I oc sin ? oc ? 52. 5 sin 69. 6o ? 49. 2 A ?oc Im ?  © MRM 05 Example 9 (Cont) Since Voc=208V i. e. low voltage side ? all reading are taken on th e secondary side (low voltage side) Voc 208 Rc ? ? ? 11. 39? I c 18. 26 Voc 208 Xm ? ? ? 4. 23? I m 49. 21 Parameters referred to high voltage side, ? E1 ? ? 2300 ? Rc ‘ ? Rc ? ? ? 11. 39? ? ? 1392? ?E ? ? 208 ? ? 2? 2 2 ? E1 ? ? 2300 ? ? ? ? 4. 23? Xm'? Xm? ? ? 517 ? MRM 05 . 21?  © ? 208 ? ? E2 ? 2 2 Example 9 (Cont) From Short Circuit Test, First, check the Isc I FL1 VA 500 ? 103 ? ? ? 217. 4 A V1 2300 Since IFL1 =Isc , ? ll reading are actually taken on the primary side Psc ? Vsc I sc cos ? sc ? 6200 ? ? ? 72. 53o ? sc ? cos ? ? (95)(217. 4) ? ? ? ?1 ?V ? Z 01 ? ? sc sc ? I ? ? sc ? ? 95 ? o o 72. 53 ? 0. 44? 72. 53 ? 217. 4 ?  © MRM 05 ? 0. 13 ? j 0. 42? Example 9 (Cont) Equivalent circuit referred to high voltage side, R01 0. 13? X01 0. 42? V1 Rc 1392? Xm 517. 21? V2? =aV2  © MRM 05 Example 9 (Cont) For V2 at full load, neglect the magnetism parameters, R01 0. 13? X01 0. 42? v1 v2? pf ? cos ? ? 0. 866 ? ? cos ? 1 0. 866 ? 30o  © MRM 05 Example 9 (Cont) Efficie ncy,? ? ? VA cos ? ? FL ? ? ? ?100% ? VA cos ? ? Psc ? Poc ? ? ? 500 ? 103 )(0. 866) ? ? 100% (500 ? 103 )(0. 866) ? 6200 ? 3800 ? ? ? 97. 74% ? ? nVA cos ? ?1 L ? ? ? ? 100% 2 nVA cos ? ? n 2 Psc ? Poc ? ? ? ? (0. 5)(500 ? 103 )(0. 866) ? ? 100% 3 2 ? (0. 5)(500 ? 10 )(0. 866) ? (6200)(0. 5) ? 3800 ? ? 97. 59%  © MRM 05 Example 9 (Cont) Voltage Regulation, ?Vsc cos ? sc ? ? pf ? V . R ? ? ? ?100% E1 ? ? ? (95) cos? 72. 53 ? 30 ? ? 100% 2300 ? ? ? 3. 04% ? ?  © MRM 05 Test Yourself on Final Exam Q ? Following are the test result of a 12 kV A, 415 V / 240 V, 50 Hz, two winding single phase transformer: Open circuit test (reading taken on low voltage side) 240 V 4. 2 A 80 WShort circuit test (reading taken on high voltage side) 9. 8 V ? Determine: i. 28. 9 A 185 W The values of Rp. Rs. Xp, Xs, Xm and Rc, assuming an approximate equivalent circuit. ii. The efficiency of the transformer at full load and 0. 8 lagging power factor. iii. The voltage regulation at full load and 0. 8 lagging power factor.  © MRM 05 Solution i. Solution ? ? ? ? Eff = 97. 3 % ? V. R = 2. 31 % Z = 57. 14 ? Rc = 714. 3 ? Xm = 57. 31 a = 1. 73 R1 = 0. 11 ? R2 = 0. 037 ? X1 = 0. 13 ? X2 = 0. 043 ? ? Refer to Primary, ? ? ? ? ?  © MRM 05 Any Questions Test 1 – coming soon Make sure you prepared for that†¦  © MRM 05

Sunday, September 29, 2019


English 105 Instructor Jim Higuera Tattoos A tattoo is a mark (a person or a part of the body) with an indelible design by inserting pigment into punctures in the skin. There is so many opinion and arguments upon tattoos. Yes tattoo is permanent life can change, and so can your tastes. The thing is, most of those things can be changed, but a tattoo can’t. Yes I do have tattoos but each tattoo has a special meaning I wouldn’t get a pointless thing tag on me for life it has everyone gets a certain tattoo for they own personal reasons.I love my tattoos ( I have 6 myself) but before you get any, you need to think about the fact that getting a tattoo is a big deal. It might come out looking terrible, you might hate it, you might be allergic to the ink they use, your parents may never speak to you again, you may become unemployable (depending on what you get & where) & YOU WILL HAVE IT FOREVER. Unless you can afford laser removal which, I understand, is very expensive. There are lots of good reasons for getting a tattoo. There are also a lot of bad ones.For example you want to piss off your parents, you want to look tough, All your friends have them and you feel left out. You want to profess your undying love to your significant other with ink on your skin. You want to be cool. You’re drunk. Your friend needs someone to practice on etcetera. I have seen so many bad tattoos so bad they make me cringe when I think about them. I know a guy who went somewhere â€Å"cheap† to get it done he went to a guy who did tattoos at his house and he ended up with a tattoo that is crooked and not dark enough. The point is its so embarrassing and a waste of money.My point is, getting a tattoo which doesn’t suck isn’t that easy. The proliferation of ugly tattoos on the shoulders of the great unwashed is proof of that. These days tattoos are more common than ever. Tattoos have grown in popularity quite a bit over the years, giving people the ab ility to stand out and display their individuality. Both men and women both have them on display – some with them covering the whole body! The choice is totally up to you, of course, as you can get a tattoo in virtually any size you want. Most of the general public who get tattoos get them for the symbolic value.Of course, some get them as part of a trend, but such people usually end up regretting their tattoo later on in life. Tattoos are great for showing off, though this depends a lot on the pattern of course. There are a variety of motifs and colors to take your pick from, which adds to the positive benefits you can get from your tattoo. You can check out the many different designs at your tattoo parlor or through magazines, or over the Internet. The Internet in particular can yield an intense supply of tattoo patterns, as there are literally thousands to look at.You can also look at pictures of those who have been tattooed already, so as to get an idea as to what a parti cular style will look like, once it has been finished. Why do we get a tattoo when we know that although tattoos can be removed by lasers, surgery and other methods, they are altogether permanent. Many people have very distinctive reasons for these lifelong marks and some even have stories attached to every one One plain reason for a typical tattoo is just for looks. The tattoo may be one that resembles another seen on a public figure.It may also be a background detail that is merely pleasing to the eye. Maybe the tattoo has bright colors or neat shapes. Aesthetics are one typical reason for many tattoos. Another rationalization why one might get a tattoo is as a memorial. Friends and family who may have passed away are often memorialized with tattoos. These memorial tattoos are also often created in the memory of a particular public figure or celebrity. These might be designed with flowers, crosses and other shapes and dates of birth, names and death dates.They might embody specifi c sayings that were important to the deceased. They may also involve complicated tattoos that have been copied from an actual photograph. These might be designed with flowers, crosses and other shapes and dates of birth, names and death dates. They might embody specific sayings that were important to the deceased. They may also involve complicated tattoos that have been copied from an actual photograph. Very many individuals will get tattoos designed to commemorate specific events experienced during their lifetimes.Achievements, difficult times and other unique events are usually displayed as a lifetime reminder of a significant time in one's life. Tattoos also represent spiritual status for some cultures. They can also sometimes be a symbol for social ranking. Some social groups are known for particular tattoos which would require a member to display the same. Others are known for having tattoos in general, the designs being unimportant. Expressing individuality and personality are often the reasons for getting a tattoo. If an individual likes butterflies, they might get a single tattoo or multiple tattoos flaunting butterflies.If someone else enjoys a particular field in which they worked, they may have tattoos representing what they do for a living. There are other ways to pore over expressing individuality around tattoos, however. Numerous tattoos are designed to reflect heritage. Ancient designs that are associated with the history of some cultures are routinely displayed on those who are of a particular culture's descent. As an example, someone of Irish descent may choose a tattoo depicting the Claddaugh background while another of Egyptian descent might lean towards one similar to their ancient ancestors.On the other hand, very many people choose designs from other cultures just for aesthetics Regardless of where you crave having your tattoo applied on the body or where you get the procedure done, it's important to understand why you really love the tat too. Unlike many other forms of body art tattoos are enduring. So why do we get a tattoo done? Having a tattoo created for the right reasons, and reasons that are truly important to you will help to increase the joy of the design for many years to come.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Ben Franklin Norris

Ben Franklin Norris Essay Benjamin Franklin Norris, one of the leading figures in the naturalistic style of writing, was born in Chicago in 1970. During his teenage years he moved to 1822 Sacramento Street to live with his father in San Francisco. He traveled to Paris and studied Art and was first exposed to one of his influential writers Emile Zola. He returned to San Francisco and studied the philosophy of evolution at the University of California at Berkley. He transferred to Harvard and took writing classes under Lewis E Gates. Upon graduating he attempted to make a name for himself as a travel writer. He traveled to South Africa and wrote an article about the Boer war. His plans to stay there were cut short as he was captured by the Boer army and deported back to the United States. When he returned to San Francisco, Norris began writing for the magazine The Wave. It was at The Wave that he wrote his first published article that later turned into a novel. Norris continued to work as a journalist, covering the Spanish-American war and he published a few more novels. In 1900, he began work on his second trilogy and most influential set of writings called The Epic of Wheat. The first book of his trilogy, The Octopus, was published in 1901. The second novel, The Pitt, was just near finished when he suffered from appendicitis and had to go under the knife to have his appendix removed. Unfortunately he never recovered from his surgery, and the third book of his trilogy was never written. Norris was married to a girl named Jeanette, and had bought a ranch ten miles west of Gilroy, California along route 152. Because of his death, he never got to stay there and continue writing as planned. His body is buried at the foot of Piedmont Avenue in Oakland, California, plot twelve, lot 105, site 11, on the cemetery map. Although Benjamin Franklin Norris, or Frank Norris as his gravestone reads, died at the young age of 32. He still managed to be recognized to be one of the best naturalistic writer s at the turn of the century. Norris had a short life, but it was packed full of things that had a huge impact on him. He witnessed different wars, and the industrial revolution firsthand. As a naturalistic writer, your experiences are what drive your work. Norris writing was very creative as a result of his experiences. You also could tell about his life by looking at the themes in Norris fiction books. A great example of this, is the impact of the industrialization on what he thought of as peaceful agricultural communities. The chaos of the people who lived in those communities was an expression of Norris discomfort of what was going on in his life at that time. These themes are best showcased in his novel, The Octopus. The tentacles of the octopus are a metaphor for the twisting steel tracks of the railroad choking the countryside. Norris got the idea for The Octopus from the Santa Carla valley___ where he stayed on extended vacation. It was that valley where he became aware of t he struggle between the farmers who grew wheat and the railroad monopoly that controlled the transportation of it. In The Octopus, the war is fought out in the open with violence and also behind closed doors with bribes. With this novel, Norris single handedly created a social drama in American literature. This was done through his interpretation of the ruthless era. The Octopus is hailed by many critics as Norris most impressive work or as Warren French said, A magnificent, imaginative achievement, one of the few American novels to bring a significant episode from our history to life. According to Norris, realism is the literature of the normal and the representative. The smaller details of everyday life, things that are likely to happen between lunch and supper. He says naturalism brings together the best from realism, romanticism, while displaying detailed accuracy and philosophical depth. It is a school by itself, unique, somber, powerful beyond words. Its Naturalism NorrisWord s/ Pages : 726 / 24 READ: Quick History Of Art Essay Research Paper

Friday, September 27, 2019

Cyber Journalism (See detail) Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Cyber Journalism (See detail) - Research Paper Example The only difference today is that the cyberjournalist answers directly to their audience, rather than to a publisher who traditionally held journalists responsible for reporting ethically. Yet, there is no consensus among publishers as to what is ethical. In the end, ethics are the responsibility of the cyberjournalist and the audience. You Can’t Be Neutral on a Moving†¦Screen The original phrase, from a book by Howard Zinn, was â€Å"You Can’t Be Neutral on a Moving Train.† Cyberjournalism is like a high-speed rail that moves so fast and is so personal that it isn’t possible to be neutral. The bigger question is whether we should even try, in spite of the fact that western society often assumes that all journalists are bound to neutrality when, nearly a century ago, Henry Luce, founder of Time magazine insisted that very concept objectivity was foolish (Ward, 2006). He contended that the public needed the media to explain and interpret the impact of events on their lives. Yet, we insist that it is true and to be expected of the press, regardless of medium. With the speed of cyberspace, it is difficult, if not impossible to be neutral. By the time the 1960’s arrived, Americans had become distrustful of such clarifications on their behalf adding a twist to Luce’s view: that no one can be objective. They public wanted to see the bare facts and decide for themselves what they meant (Ward). Youth no longer trusted the media with full-disclosure, even in supposedly free countries. When Chicagoan Justin Hall began blogging in 2004, many of the new blogging generation embraced the concept of taking news into their own hands –after all, they were the children and grandchildren of the children of the 1960’s generation. America was ready. Evolution–Or More of the Same? Beyond the big cities that claim the largest share of the journalism world, the rest of the United States already knew what citizen journ alism was long before cyberjournalism. For more than a century and a half—long before Time magazine hit the newsstands—local citizens had been writing columns about who had dinner at whose house last Sunday night, or which church was gearing up for the next ice cream social. That was citizen journalism. Even back then, reporters often wrote under a pseudonym like â€Å"Gomper’s Corner’s Gertie,† a precursor to the userids of bloggers like Duncan Bowen Black who blogs at Atrios on at Like any citizen journalist, Atrios is a citizen of the world he writes about: economics. Over the years, we have come to assume that reporters are somehow sanctioned by having earned a degree from a school of journalism. Neither â€Å"Gomper’s Corner’s Gertie† nor Atrios have a degree in journalis

Thursday, September 26, 2019

The Kennedy Doctrine 1961-1963 Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Kennedy Doctrine 1961-1963 - Research Paper Example If Kennedy would not have inherited the legacy of the Recession of 1960-61, and also if ‘the Bay of Pigs’ invasion would not have failed, the Kennedy Doctrine had been, possibly, read as an anecdote or sequel to his predecessor Eisenhower’s foreign policy which rigidly was permeated with the president’s confidence in the country’s military strength to suppress any threat in international politics. Though within the first six months of his presidency in the Oval Office, Kennedy recovered from the recession, the increased military expenditure in the following years was the reflection of Kennedy’s policy to deter any possible offensive role of the Soviet Union. In this regard Gaddis (2005) opined that also the failed CIA-backed military coup in Cuba, in spite of Kennedy’s promise to refrain from Cuban Affairs, provoked the president to be bold to pronounce the United States’ defensive stance regarding the Berlin issue and the diplom atic acknowledgement of the Soviet Union’s concern in Germany. (Gaddis, 2005, pp. 112-115). Outlines of the Kennedy Doctrine and Historical Background Though the Kennedy Doctrine is often misinterpreted as the elaborations of Eisenhower and Truman’s foreign policy prerogatives to contain Communist expansion around the world at any cost, even by involving into another war, the skeletal difference of JFK’s policy with his predecessor’s was determined by the country’s experience of fighting the recession during its earliest months, of failure of the â€Å"Bay of Pigs† and the â€Å"Cuban Missile Crisis†. Kennedy promised to pay â€Å"any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty† (The Avalon Project, 2008). In his augural speech; nevertheless he was aware of the pressure of a tumultuous economy that was suffering from the fourth great r ecession in the US history. In one of his Union addresses, Kennedy admitted it: â€Å"The present state of our economy is disturbing. We take office in the wake of seven months of recession. Insured unemployment is at the highest peak in our history. In short, the American economy is in trouble† (Sorensen, 2009, p. 98). Unlike his predecessor, Eisenhower, Kennedy took the reign of America at a time when â€Å"business bankruptcies had reached the highest level since the 1930s, farm incomes had decreased 25 percent since 1951, and 5.5 million Americans were looking for work† (Miller Center, n.d.). Failure of the â€Å"Bay of Pigs† Invasion: A New Turn in Kennedy’s Foreign Policy Indeed Kennedy’s perception of the country’s economy along with the failures of his overly enthusiastic but covert military enterprises in Cuba in April 17, 1961 seemed to provoke him to be more diplomatic in confronting Communism around the World. Researchers often t end to characterize the Bay of Pig Invasion as Kennedy Administration’s initial trend to tread down the predecessors’ path to respond to Nikita Khrushchev’s â€Å"support for the wars of national liberation† in January, 1961 and the Soviet role in Congo crisis in February, 1961. According to Gaddis (2005), such experience in the â€Å"Bay of Pigs† might bring a new twist in Kennedy Foreign Policy (p. 89). This event provoked the president to voice the US positions clearly, less depending on the covert role, in the Berlin

Ask the Author Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Ask the Author - Essay Example They are short and direct sentences. They help to bring out the idea that you are not embarrassed to have a dollhouse in your living room. It sets the stage for the rest of the essay as you embark on recreating your childhood memories and synchronizing them with your current life as you rebuild the dollhouse. The choice of gender and the names for your dolls also aid in understanding the nostalgic tone you employ in the essay. You also employ figurative language and imagery to convey your theme of nostalgia to the audience. For example in the fifth paragraph, you use a simile when emphasizing the need for using scale to make everything in a dollhouse. The audience gets to understand that lack of paying attention to scale in a dollhouse will make it look crazy like an Alice in wonderland hallucination (Haegele). Your description of remodeling the dollhouse is also vivid and the reader can create mental pictures throughout the essay and see you rework the dollhouse. The use of figurati ve language and imagery helps bring out the nostalgic

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Astronomy Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Astronomy - Research Paper Example Our solar system is located in Milky Way which is a spiral galaxy. It is estimated that almost 200 billion stars inhabit Milky Way. Whatever is visible to us by naked eyes lies within the boundaries of Milky Way. The distance in space is measured in light years and our Sun is at the distance of 26000 light-years from the center of Milky Way. The distance that light travels in one year is known as one light-year. The distance between two ends of the Milky Way is almost 120,000 light years. Our sun revolves around the center of Milky Way and takes almost 225 million years to complete one round of our galaxy. Our solar system moves at an amazing velocity of about 250 kilometers/second (Cain, Fraser). Our solar system is made up of planets, moons, comets, an asteroid belt, meteors, plutoids and other objects. Everything in our solar system moves around our sun. Our planet the Earth is the only place in the whole solar system which exhibits life and that way it is unique in whole solar system (Enchanted Learning). There are nine planets in our solar system and they are known as Mercury, Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune, Saturn, Earth, Venus, Mars and Pluto. Pluto is known as dwarf planet. All planets orbit around the sun in the same plane. Mercury is nearest to the Sun. It has no atmosphere. It is only visible during sunrise and sunset duet to its closeness to the Sun. It is about 4878 kilometers in diameter and the smallest among all planets in our solar system. Its mass is only 5 percent of that of the Earth and the gravitational pull is just 38 percent of the earths gravity. Its surface temperature varies widely from -168Â ° C to 427Â ° C. Venus is the second nearest planet and 108,200,000 km away from the Sun. It has almost circular orbit but moves in opposite direction of the Earth. It is also known as morning and evening star because it is so bright

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Interpretive Note on Sarah Orne Jewett's The Country of the Pointed Essay

Interpretive Note on Sarah Orne Jewett's The Country of the Pointed Firs - Essay Example The Country of the Pointed Firs is one such work, in which, Jewett subtly shows how women can live an independent life without following certain stereotypes. So, this paper analyzes how Jewett also focuses on women-dominated space, particularly their psychic. The Country of the Pointed Firs follows the trails of the unnamed narrator in the fictional town of Dunnet Landing, Maine. She is a writer from Boston, who comes to Dunnet Landing to complete the work she has started. Renting a room in the home of Mrs. Todd, she gets acclimatized to the area and becomes captivated by the old-fashioned community. Most of the town’s population are old people with ages ranging between sixty and ninety. All of them are ‘rich’ with many interesting experiences and thus they tell small stories or anecdotes about the town, the sea, as well as the town’s people, to the narrator thereby enriching the narrator’s experience. The narrator was overwhelmed by the experience with nostalgia flowing through her mind. In course of time, she strikes a ‘close relationship’ with Mrs. Todd and that gives another perspective to the work. In most of her works, Jewett, pushed by her wish to break all dichotomies, creates female characters who are strong, confident and independent. In The Country of the Pointed Firs, apart from the narrator character, the character who symbolized the above said positive virtues of woman is Mrs. Todd. This semiautobiographical novel follows a young woman writer, who while spending a summer Dunnett Landing and completing her work, comes in contact with a group of women. These women while telling many stories about the town, become emotionally attached to the writer. â€Å"There she is adopted into a loose knit group of women who weave a web of stories about the town, the surrounding islands and the folks who live, or lived, there.† ( They spend a lot of time close to each other, sharing good rapport and so

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Kant and Hobbes Comparison Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Kant and Hobbes Comparison - Essay Example Both philosophers believe in pragmatism and ethics. But Kant’s practical philosophy is concerned with the unwritten rules that govern human action while Hobbes believes that human actions are directed towards self-interest based on ethical egoism. With this, Hobbes argues that since humans tend to do things based on their self-interest, conflicts may arise when the interest of one overlaps with another or is in opposition to another. This can only be solved if humans allow others to pursue their own self-interest by doing things that will not hamper another’s pursuance of self-interest. That is the only way to resolve the conflict between human actions. Hobbes also argues that the pursuit of self-interest does not mean doing the good thing rather it is maximizing one’s chance to survive or to be happy. This is very different from Kant’s wherein his pursuit of self-interest is based upon what is right, not merely to be happy or to survive. Thus, he pursues the idea of good will. The idea of good will is basically doing what is morally right, so if an action requires injustice or cruelty, then it should be set aside as it is not morally right. Example, if doing a courageous act such as facing a battle in war and the war affects innocent people, then it is not morally right to do so. .... Answering to an invitation, whether we say yes or no, is an imperative of etiquette. It is unethical not to bother answering to an invitation when we look into etiquette. Hobbes’ morality is formed from human nature and empirical conditions rather than categorical imperatives. Kant argues against this as he believes that morality is not pursuance of self-interest rather it is to secure human freedom and equality. Hobbes’ morality is man-made and not God-given. Humans make decisions based on human nature, based on one’s self-interest or the preservation of one’s life, dignity or freedom. On the other hand, Kant’s morality is God-given as it is based solely on moral principles, of doing morally right things and not doing those that opposes good will. Hobbes uses instrumental reason while Kant uses pure practical reason. Kant believes that one’s actions are based on an autonomous will instead of being a slave to one’s passions, as Hobbesà ¢â‚¬â„¢ morality is based upon. For example self-preservation for Kant is a duty, a moral good based on Christian ethics, thus, saying that suicide is a sin. Hobbes will interpret suicide as an immoral thing to do because it does not in any way pursue self-interest to be happy or to survive. This shows that Hobbes sees self-preservation not as a duty rather it is part of the pursuit to survive and to gain happiness and contentment. Let’s take another example in stealing. Stealing, for Kant, is wrong because it is a sin based on Christian ethics, because of categorical imperatives wherein it is immoral because it is not morally right to do so. On the other hand, Hobbes finds stealing as an opposition to the social contract, that is, it steps on another’s pursuit to self-interest, which is protection of one’s

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Cuba and Argentina are in Latin America Essay Example for Free

Cuba and Argentina are in Latin America Essay Although both Cuba and Argentina are in Latin America, they still have differences in cultures and even in educational systems. Moreover, despite the fact that these two countries are close in terms of literacy rates (although Argentina is slightly higher than that of Cuba), the two countries have much differences in educational practices. In Cuba, the government subsidize education at all levels. This makes the education in this country extensively state-directed. A lot of public dispute and politics covers the education, being state-directed. The bulk of the tax burden of the people are mainly allocated for education. Education has been the top priority of the country when it comes to funding expenditures and extra projects. Cuba is praised for showing an extravagant and long-lasting effort to ensure the quality of education services that their youth receive. There is a free compulsory primary education for all Cuban children age 6 to 15. The government subsidizes even the higher education. However, this scenario also implies negative impacts. Since the government â€Å"trains† its youth, they also rate them according to their political beliefs. Students have their own â€Å"Cumulative School File. This is like a report card that goes beyond documenting academic standing. It is the record of the student’s political thinking. Anyone who has join protests against the government is hindered to have more opportunities of the higher education or universities. This is also applicable even for the employed people. Some of the students are expelled from school and others are dismissed from work for the employed ones. The control of the government over the people last in more or less a lifetime because this â€Å"report card† are updated. All of the students are expected to have the Marxist way of thinking towards the government and politics. On the other hand, Argentina government is less rigid when it comes to education. They also have the compulsory primary education for children ages 6 to 14 years of age. All children of these ages are mandated to attend the primary education that lasts 12 years. There is no longer compulsory education for the high school level although they could still have affordable high school education offerings. However, half of those who attended the compulsory primary education do not continue to high school. Yet, Argentina is still among the countries who have the most number of degree holders in relation to their population. These two Latin American countries are the same and yet different in a number of aspects in education. Indeed, both countries give importance to education. The government allot an adequate amount of resources to education. This is true since they even have legislated a law that could legalize a mandated primary education for Argentina and in all levels in the case of Cuba. Both are strict when it comes to age requirement for the grade levels. However, their approaches towards the implementation of quality education are different. In Argentina, students who have finished the primary education are allowed to choose in what school they will pursue. Moreover, they have the decision whether they would continue or stop schooling. The students and their family can choose among the various schools that are affordable. On the other hand, Cuba goes beyond the primary education. The government subsidizes education up to the highest level. However, the bearing is that it can decide for the future of the student. The student and his family should agree with the government in all aspects so that he or she could enroll in the best universities. The government does not only have the political power but also the power to have the youth favor to them. Now, if the students from these two countries migrate to the United States of America, they may have the same cultural adjustment problems. Both speaks the same language, and thus both may have the same learning and communication styles. The both may also have the same expected problems when they are brought to the US classrooms. Basically, the problems that may arise from the immigration of the students may be classified into three: intercultural communication, learning styles, and adolescence (Introduction to Immigration in US, 2001). In the United of States of America, government provides education for the people. It could either be on the federal, state, or local level. Because there is allotted budget for education, it is compulsory to avail these education benefits. Children from four to 18 years old are required to undergo the basic education. Moreover, formal education in the US is being held in public, private and home schools. The schooling is divided into kindergarten up to twelfth grade. There are many universities among the numerous states. The students from Cuba and Argentina are expected to have problems intercultural communication. This means not only their difference in language but also the differences in diverse cultures. This may be called a crash of culture or others termed this as â€Å"culture shock. † For example, in the US, the common form of greeting is handshake. On the other hand, in Cuba and Argentina, it is common to give hugs even among the boys, but in the United Sates, this form of greeting is given for those who are already closely related to each other. Another intercultural communication conflict may also be attributed to the differences in religion. The people of Argentina and Cuba relatively have different religion to the majority of the people in the United States. The Cubans and Argentineans are mostly Roman Catholic while the Americans are mostly Protestants. There may be some differences or even conflicts in religious practices and even celebrations. The second type of problem that may arise among the immigrating students is the differences in learning styles. The communication styles also differ from the two countries. People in the United States are a lot more direct in the matter of speaking than the two other countries. Moreover, noises in the American classroom setting are common. This may be distracting to the Cuban and Argentinean students who are used to formal and quiet classroom setting. The third issue is the adolescence of the students. Adolescents struggle with identity issues. This process may be more difficult and complicated for the students who have migrated. They may try to cope with these differences and tend to cover or set aside their own culture. This may cause emotional and social chaos to the student. Statement Prompt The main difference between the education in the United Sates and the education in Argentina is that the former has longer basic education. In Argentina, the compulsory basic education lasts until the student is 14 years old while the basic education is compulsory until the students in the United States are 18 years of age. The basic education in US involves more grade level and classification. More often than not, after the long basic education, the students are qualified to work. Many of the students in US work while studying in college. The long basic education aims to make the students independent and included in the working force of the state. Nevertheless, these problems may be adequately addressed. There are recommendations to smoothen the learning and coping process of the students. First, the teacher has to be aware of the differences of culture among the diverse types of students in the class. The teacher should have the initiative to lessen the crash of culture among the students. He or she should have adequate knowledge about the nature of the immigrant students. This is not to encourage them to change but to let them preserve their culture in their very rights (Introduction to Immigration in US, 2001). Moreover, the teacher should also help the student to have faster English-learning process. He or she should encourage the students to speak English in and even out of the class. Although he is not the student’s English teacher, he should still be patient to talk the student. Lastly, the family of the immigrant students should also be acquainted to the educational system in the United States. â€Å"New comer† programs are effective to encourage the students and even their families to participate more in the school programs. This will make them trust that the school can help the child regardless of the differences in culture. There should be trainings about language skills, work skills and even cultural adaptations program especially for the students. Reasons for immigration may be different but the adaptation that needs to be done may be the same. The differences in culture may be settled in effective communication. Although there are also differences in manners of communication itself, compromising is universal to resolve conflict: crash of culture for this matter. The educational systems may also be different but the goal of education is universal too, learning, knowledge and may be wisdom are the goals of the people who avail education. Reference: Introduction to Immigration in the United States. 2001. Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Available at: http://www. nwrel. org/cnorse/booklets/immigration/5. html#overall

Friday, September 20, 2019

The Opening Sequence Of Mary Poppins Film Studies Essay

The Opening Sequence Of Mary Poppins Film Studies Essay The opening sequence of Mary Poppins shows a backdrop of the city of London. Credits scroll by as the camera pans from right to left on the backdrop until it zooms in on Mary Poppins, (Julie Andrews), sitting on a cloud. A medley of songs: Feed the Birds, A Spoonful of Sugar, and Chim, Chim, Cher-ee play in the background. Finally, the camera pans down to a park where Bert, (Dick Van Dyke) sings and plays a one-man-band to a crowd of onlookers. He begs a tip from an affluent audience and then leads the viewer to Cherry Tree Lane. This introduces the story, characters, and location of the film. Bert tells of a changing wind, which suggests that Mary Poppins is arriving. Using the same backdrop of London at the beginning and the end brings the movie full-circle when the wind changes again and Mary returns to the clouds. At the end of the movie, Mary leaves while the Banks family flies kites together. Bert says goodbye to Mary on her way back to the clouds over London. The song, Lets Go Fly a Kite plays as credits roll past. The movies theme is that only a tuppence of change can make a difference. Mary Poppins brings that change when she teaches the Banks family that little things like a tuppence for feeding birds, making chores fun when the children clean their rooms, and going for imaginary outings in the park can make a difference in the their lives. The opening scene sets up this theme when Bert expects a tip from his well-dressed audience. Some give generously to help him, but others dont give anything at all. Did you find the aforementioned film to be satisfying and/or entertaining? Did it make an impact that will be lasting? Will you or will you not recommend it to others? Why? Mary Poppins is an entertaining childrens movie, although I dont care for other musicals. It reiterates how I feel about doing small things that make a difference to help others. I recommend this movie to parents of young children because I think it would appeal to a young audience. It has great music like A Spoonful of Sugar, animated scenes of penguin waiters, and colorful carousel ponies that children would like. Isolate a five-to-ten minute continuous stretch of the required film from Lesson 4 or Lesson 5. As an exercise, turn off the sound and watch for every cut in a scene(s). Briefly describe a number of editing cuts you see. Be explicit about what film stretch you observed and what editing cuts are evidenced. Is the cutting conspicuous or inconspicuous, rapid or slow, smooth or jarring? What is the point of the cutting in each scene(s)? To clarify? Lyricize? Create suspense? Explore an emotion or idea in depth? Explain. Describe how the action is pictured in these cuts. In scene 13, Mary and the children visit Uncle Albert. They walk down an alley to a building. The camera cuts to a low angle shot of Mary at the door. After Bert opens the door for them to come inside, the scene cuts to a shot inside Uncle Alberts home. A medium shot shows Bert, Mary, and the children (Mat Garber, Karen Dotrice) standing by a stairway. The camera pans and follows them through another doorway. The scene cuts to another room they all go in. The camera pans to an establishing long shot of everyone in the room including Uncle Albert (Ed Wynn) who sits in the air near the ceiling. The next cut is a high angle shot from Uncle Alberts point of view looking down to Mary, Bert, and the children. It cuts to a close-up of Uncle Albert laughing and gesturing with his hands. Then a cut to a high angle reaction shot of the childrens faces as they see Uncle Albert. Several reaction shots, low or high angle shots, and close-ups cut back and forth from Uncle Albert laughing and tumbl ing in the air, to the children laughing, to Bert trying to keep from laughing, and Mary admonishing them. A cut to a long shot for reestablishing everyones place in the room keeps viewers focused. Finally, all four characters join Uncle Albert in the air for tea. The conspicuous and classical cuts jump back and forth quickly, but they are smooth and give emotional details of the facial expressions of the characters and physical details of where everyone is in the room. For instance, one can see that Mary disapproves when she rolls her eyes, glares down at the children, or looks crossly at Bert in several two shot cuts. In other cuts the camera shows disorienting shots of Uncle Albert near the ceiling, or follows him as he tumbles around. Using the required film viewed from Lesson 2, 4, or 5, concentrate on sound effects in one scene with quite a bit of movement. Describe the different sounds/noises in the scene and how they are used. Watch this one scene again without sound. How do sound effects contribute to the impact of the scene? As with #3, be explicit about what scene you observed for sounds and movement. In the Step in Time dance number of scene 19, chimney sweeps dance on rooftops. Dancers keep time with the rhythmic music, but no tapping feet are heard. The music seems to tap the beat for them. When the songs lyrics say, act like a birdie, a shrill whistle mimics a birds sound. When Admiral Boom (Reginald Owen) fires on the dancers, the audience hears hissing, pops, and booms of rockets soaring through the air with whizzing sounds. Without sound, the chimney sweeps appear to be marching to war. This might be confusing when Admiral Boom fires rockets across the sky, but the cheerful vocals and the beat of the music soften the scene so the viewer is entertained instead of misinterpreting it as a war scene or being bored by its length. Using the required film viewed from Lesson 2, 4, or 5, describe how music is employed. What type of musical score does the film feature-orchestral music, jazz music, ballroom music, vocals, etc.? What types of musical instruments are heard? List several instruments. Is music used to underline speech or is it employed only for action or dance scenes? What precise songs, tunes, or vocal performances are prominent? The music in Mary Poppins sets the tempo of the movie and allows characters to sing what is happening instead of using boring dialogue. For instance, Mrs. Banks (Glynnis Johns) sings about her role in helping Womens Votes, and Mr. Banks (David Tomlinson) sings about keeping his home on schedule. The film uses vocals and orchestra music throughout the movie. Violins, cellos, drums, flutes, trombones, harps, cymbals, and tubas can be heard in the orchestra. The movie depends on vocals and music to underline speech and tell its story; however the chimneysweep Step in Time sequence uses the music for action and dance. Other favorite songs of the movie are A Spoonful of Sugar, Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious, and Chim, Chim, Cher-ee. Now a Disney classic, Mary Poppins is a favorite of children and adults.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The Clean Energy and the fossil fuels in Saudi Arabia Essay -- Environ

Over the past 200 years, mankind discovered the fossil fuels and they used this source to produce hug energy. This affects the environment in many negative ways and caused many issues worldwide such as urban air pollution and acid rain, oil spills and the high temperature of earth. Saudi Arabia has the biggest oil reserves in the world by 19.66% (the world factbook, 2011) and the second oil producer country in the world with roughly 10.121 million barrels a day – which account for 12% of the total world production of oil in 2010 (Fontinelle,2011). Moreover, the country relies heavily on oil industry. And the most successful companies in the country are thus whose work in oil industry such as ARAMCO Company. The reason behind this success is because most of these companies get financial support and attention from the Saudi government and sometimes the government owes these companies. Because of the massive reserve of oil and the high income that generated from oil, the country has less attention to seek for other sources of clean energy such as solar energy and wind energy which leads to the increase of air pollution in the country. However, oil is expected to last in the next 50 to 100 years (Hubbert, 1956). Furthermore, the International organizations have made many decisions to protect the environment and environmental resource such as Kyoto Protocol which decided to raise the use of solar energy to 50%of the total global energy use by 2020 (UNFCCC ,2005 ). Recently, these issues lead the Saudi government to realize problems, such as air pollutions, and start to invest in clean energy area but not as expected. These days many people in Saudi Arabia argue the uses of clean energy and replace with the fossil fuels. And they d... ...hese negatives and people can get positives from this and have clean and healthy environment. Moreover, they will have renewable energy. We also can create new jobs and we can use this fuel in transportations. However, this technology is very expensive but it can cover the cost in long term and sometimes in a short term. In addition, Saudi Arabia is large country and it is known as a desert country, which is suitable for this technology. Many believe that the best solution for this issue is to use both fossil fuels and clean energy and create hybrid power (KACST, 2009). Therefore, the country can get the benefit from both side and they can keep fossil fuels longer as much they can, save the environment and another source of income to the country. Finally, every person needs to think about this issue, so we will have a great and successful life in the future.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Adolescent Girls at Risk Essay -- Essays Papers

Adolescent Girls at Risk What risks are really in existence for adolescent girls growing up on the Arizona-Mexico border? Well, more then anyone in their right mind might be able to imagine. Adolescent girls growing up on the border or in a multicultural area are generally from lower income homes, which in itself introduces an entire set of risk factors. The main focus, but certainly not the only ones at risk, being that of minority groups, such as Hispanic and American Indian girls. In general, they are at a risk for teen pregnancy, drug and alcohol abuse, gang affiliation, and academic and social challenges at school. Now this might not seem entirely foreign or surprising to some people. In fact, almost all high school students are at risk for everything listed, but the degree to which the girls are vulnerable to these risks in a multicultural environment can be alarming. There are many factors that can affect an adolescent girl’s degree of risk, and these factors are generally characterized as â€Å"stressors.† Stressors can consist of many things, from family problems, to social problems, to problems with academics. In migrant children, the stressors can be from the actual act of moving. They can also develop from difficulties in adjusting to a new area where they are now the minority and are being discriminated against for the first time (Canino & Spurlock, 18). This can cause a marked decline in self-esteem, which leads to even more difficulties including metal health problems. Many risk factors affecting minority youth are enhanced by the fact that they are typically from poor, highly stressed families (Canino & Spurlock, 18). Among all of these stressors, there are remedies, including social support... ... Children for Success in the 21st Century. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona Town Hall, 1994. Branch, Curtis W. Clinical Interventions with Gang Adolescents and Their Families. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997. Canino and Spurlock. Culturally Diverse Children and Adolescents: Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 1994. Finkelstein, Nadia Ehrlich. Children and Youth in Limbo: A Search for Connections. New York, NY: Praeger Publishers, 1991. Garza and Ockerman. Adolescent Mexican American Student Attitudes of Self-Concept, Locus of Control and Family Ideology in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Palo Alto, CA: R&E Research Associates, Inc., 1979. Marchant and Smith. Adolescent Girls at Risk. New York, NY: Pergamon Press, 1977. Social Work with Adolescents. Ed. Jones and Pritchard. Boston, MA: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1980.

Hong Kongindia Command and Market Economies :: essays papers

Hong Kongindia Command and Market Economies The world is run with economic systems. Two of these economic systems are the market economy and the command economy. These economic systems both greatly differ and are similar in there ways of controling the factors of production, ownership, and their incentives for efficient production. An area of the world that has a command economy is India. The government controls and makes decisions with the factors of production. The factors of production are the resources used to produce goods and services, such as lonad, labor and capital. Within these socialist areas, there is no presence of motivation, a very important factor in an economy. This is because no matter what they do for their economy, everyboyd will recieve the same pay. For example, a doctor would get paid the same amount as a dishwasher.This creates unmotivation because there is nowhere to progress to. People don’t want to work hard for the same pay as someone who doesn’t. Also, since the government controls the factors of production, and not the individual consumers themselves, it is impossible for the few in power to know the many needs, and conditions of resource availability, within the whole economy. Therefore, many things of importance are not recognized, or over looked and the economy and people suffer from the loss. It is present in these areas of socialism that many of the people suffer from poverty because of this economic system. Hong Kong used to be a command economy. Hong Kong was very poor. This poor area quickly changed over the years into a very prosporous place. This is due to it’s change to the market economy. Hong Kong is also the freest of economies. The United states of america also has a market economy. In a market economy, or free enterprise economy, the individuals own the factors of productin, and make the decisions with them. This is unlike the command econly becaues their government controls the factors of production. The market economy is more effiecent because the individuals decide for themselves how to answer economic questions, looking out for their own personal best interest. This creates motivation, in which the command economy lacks. Entreprenurs also play a large roll in the economy. In Hong Kong, it is extremely easy to start your own business.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Need Extra Income

Uch a significant effect of the book on people's mental health, however, Is of much older ancestry. It is said, that already in ancient Greece amongst others Aristotle regarded literature as drugs for the soul. During the 1200s, it was read even from the Quran to patients In the hospital In Cairo A1-Mansur, as part of the treatment. The first doctoral dissertation in bibliotherapy was written in 1949 by the American Caroline Shrodes.There are clear links from psychotherapy to bibliotherapy, but ibliotherapy bottoms in other theories. Shrodes also expresses the same three phases in the bibliotherapeutic process: identification, catharsis, and insight. Readers Identify, recognize themselves in the text, and live Into It so they can look at their own life from a different perspective. The reading may thus have positive and liberating emotional impact on the individual concerned.The clinical bibliotherapy focuses on therapeutic and healing effect on reading and onversation. Here collabor ating librarian with a doctor who monitors and controls his work. Today bibliotherapy is used in a hospital, where the long-term patients can borrow books in a hospital library. The patients can be In groups or alone for discussing with a librarian or therapist the works they read, and the feelings and thoughts that the reading evoked.Even counselors, doctors, and social workers can utilize literature as herapy or aids together with their patients. Bibliographic therapeutic methods can be used both in the social and health services as well as Integrated In occupational health and tutorials, but also among various leisure activities. College students eager to write a successful research proposal on the topic may want to use free sample research paper on bibliotherapy, which are able to help you understand the set of rules of scientific article writing.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Ethical Self Reflection Essay

Abstract In many cases, a person must choose between two or more â€Å"rights† that may or may not align with both one’s moral and ethical standards. The care-based, rule-based, ends-based thinking to arrive at a decision rather than rationalizing after the fact are necessary for analyzing ethical dilemmas (Hughes, Ginnett, & Curphy, 2012, pp. 164-165). The self-reflection needed to identify one’s fundamental nature, and to understand the morals, ethics and values one uses to make decisions are critical to becoming an authentic leader who is a moral manager that serves the people that follow him or her (Hughes,, pp. 152-153). Ethical Self Reflection What is right? Morals define personal character related to the ideas of both right and wrong. Ethics, while inherently linked to morals and one’s moral obligations, is a set of moral principles used in a social system in which those morals are applied. In other words, ethics point to standards or codes of behavior expected by the group to which the individual belongs. These standards could be national ethics, social ethics, company ethics, professional ethics, or even family ethics. So while a person’s moral code is usually unchanging, the ethics he or she practices can be dependent on exogenous factors not controlled by the individual or the group to which the individual belongs. Care-based thinking describes what is commonly referred to as the Golden Rule, â€Å"Do unto others as you want others to do to you†, of conduct and is most closely aligned with Aristotle’s writings concerning happiness. Aristotle writes in Nichomachean Ethics that, â€Å"If hap piness is activity in accordance with virtue, it is reasonable that it should be in accordance with the highest virtue; and this will be that of the best thing in us† (Aristotle, 1992, p. 7). Thus the idea of ethics does not begin with the morals of either right or wrong, but starts with the premise that we all desire what is good or what seems so to us (Brennan, 1992, p. 64).  Happiness, then, is to live in an objectively good way according to several virtues that conform to the best and most complete aspects of human activity including wisdom, knowledge, courage, self-control, magnanimity, and honorable ambition (Brennan, pp. 65-67). These virtues describe the character of a good person whose acts are ethically free, not compelled; voluntary and not forced. Unlike Aristotle’s character based ethics, Immanuel Kant proposes a rule-based thinking that actions of true moral worth are done when a person does the right thing because it is right and not for what benefit the person can get out of the act (Hughes,, p. 165). This type of thinking largely negates the external factors that may influence a person’s inclination to wiegh the decision to act based on the greatest hapiness provided to thegreatest number of people. When one takes the results or consequences of an act into consideration moreso than the act’s rightness or wrongness, then the act can be said to be based on ends-based thinking (Hughes,, p. 165). This thinking is largely based on Utilitariansim proposed by JohnStuart Mill in 1863 who defines it as: The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals, Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the happiness. By happiness is intended plea sure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain, and the privation of pleasure (Mill, 1863, pp. 9-10). Mill, however, did not propose that the ends of an action justified the means, for justice, to Mills, is paramount to the creation of good organizations and societies (Mill, pp. 42-43). The principle of ends-based thinking or utilitarianism requires that each person count for as much as the next, and that no single man or woman should be made to suffer injustice in order to increase the happiness of all the rest (Brennan, p. 98). Determining why we say what we are going to say; why we do what we are going to do; and why we feel what we feel in an ethical dilemma presupposes that moral choice is rational. However, â€Å"man is not a rational animal; he is a rationalizing animal†¦[and] one of the hardest things to believe is the abysmal depth of human stupidity† (Heinlein, 1953, p. 18). This Sartrean brand of existentialism is based on the idea that we act first, and then look around for reason afterward (Brennan, p. 122). This rationalizing does not operate at the level of our own behavior alone. We, as social animals, are prone to adapt  to the reality as others find it. We tend to conform, even if, when rationally examined, the reality of the group does not make sense. â€Å"To thine own self be true, and it must follow, as the night the day, thou canst not then be false to any man† (Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act I scene 3, 78-82). Shakespeare provides Polonius a voice that resonates clearly in present contexts the importance of being true with one’s morals and virtues. True, not in the Elizabethan sense of making certain you had your home and finances in order to allow you to better help others, but true in a sense of Plato’s maxim â€Å"Know Thyself†. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, whose name is strongly associated with the Enlightenment movement, believed that the knowledge of oneself is the beginning of wisdom (Brennan, J., p.75). Gaining this knowledge requires self-reflection. Reflection links changed awareness with changed action. Reflection is a valuable part of any worthwhile effort. When one takes the time to thoughtfully reflect about an experience, one is given the opportunity to learn from it, to enjoy success, understand failures, and to gain insights that will be helpful to you in future activities The knowledge of self is essential to enable leaders and followers who aspire to lead to clarify their own values as they model the way for others to follow (Barry P., Kouzes J., 2012). However, lifting the cloud of the false personal perceptions we all build from the front of our observation lenses is no easy task. Our implicit prejudices, in-group favoritism, claims of imagined credit and misjudged conflicts of interest are the fuel to the clouds that provide us an over-inflated sense of self-importance (Hughes R.L., et al., 2012, pp. 161-163) Simple self-reflection or introspection is useful when we are trying to decide to make for dinner. During the 2012 Human Capital Institute (HCI) Learning and Leader Development Conference, BG (Ret) Thomas Kolditz said tha t, â€Å"You can’t become in 30 seconds what you haven’t been in 30 years† (Fakalata, 2012). Whether a leader is in a corporate boardroom, watching the company’s price point per share fall so low that you need a special ticket into the New York Stock Exchange’s stinking underbelly to see how far it really sunk, or whether a leader is watching his ladder and hose crews battle an industrial chemical fire near a suburban Alabama community, the situations that test leadership are also the events that produce competent and selfless leaders driven by moral obligation and social conscience (Kolditz, 2007). Likewise, these same  situations produce the corporate and local government villains that are ridiculed for their selfishness, incompetence, inattentiveness and greed. Motive provides one the reason for doing something and may be considered the â€Å"why† that inspires the â€Å"what† needs to be done (Covey, 2006, p. 78). Values are constructs representing generalized behaviors or states of affairs that are considered by the individual to be importa nt (Hughes, Ginnett, & Curphy, 2012, p. 152). With these definitions in mind, one may surmise that values – what is important to us – guide us to adopt motives that become visible to others through our behavior towards and with others to complete the â€Å"what† needs to be done. Loyalty to a leader is engendered when followers can place their full trust in leaders who are perceived as persons with high moral integrity (Wakin, 1976, p. 587). The moral obligations one has influences the values that drive us toward a certain set of motives that cause us to take action under varying circumstances. Leaders who are consistent with their behaviors with respect to their perceived moral obligations are viewed as having high moral integrity and worthy of trust. The ability of a person to lead a group is often dependent on the culture and the group’s beliefs in right and wrong – the ethical climate (Hughes, Ginnett, & Curphy, p. 155). For example, a person who values money, reducing expenses, realizing p rofits, and maximizing business opportunities is motivated by finance or financial wealth. This person, leading a group that values devotion to duty, hard work, and respect for authority, may experience difficulty because the values are not shared and will seldom align to the tradition that motivates the group being led. The financial leader in a group of traditionalists may be viewed negatively because the obtaining financial success is considered the wrong â€Å"why† to do work that requires – from the groups perspective – duty, loyalty, hard work and respect. In any context where leadership is a critical component to success, moral absolutists whose values reflect strict adherence to a defined rule-based thought process may be viewed as uncompromising and hide-bound. Likewise, a pragmatist or a person that uses end-based thinking to justify actions may be viewed as one who uses any method to expediently achieve the organizations goals and objectives. In either case, the appellation of absolutist or pragmatist may be viewed as a pejorative depending on what values are shared by the followers and the organization. However, neither  moral archetype explanation is sufficient when dealing with human actions and the values that drive the motives behind these actions. Truth-telling, promise-keeping, preservation of life, respect for property may not be absolute moral obligations, but they are not relative either. Rather, as Hughes describes, the situation significantly influences both the priority of moral obligations and the leadership interaction between the leader and followers in a particular situation (Hughes, Ginnett, & Curphy, p. 26). In terms perhaps more easily understood, moral obligations like promise-keeping may be at odds, depending on the situation, with an equal universal obligation like preserving life. Neither obligation is absolute and neither is relative, however circumstances may arise when one must prioritize the obligation that shapes what one values and provides the motive to take action. Leadership is about getting results in a way that inspires trust (Covey, 2006, p. 40). Trust of oneself, trust in the relationships we have with our constituents and the organization of which we are part. The means to accomplish a task and get the expected results are just as important as the ends. Leaders possessing a set of morals consistent with the ethics of a given society (organization) are better able to get results in a way that maintains or increases trust. The non-conformists and the dissidents who openly oppose dominant social attitudes and ideologies are not necessarily more correct or more rational. But we might take their criticism as an opportunity for honest self-reflection and examination of even our most dearly held views of ourselves and our society. Congruence with morals, values, motives and behavior results in what we might call integrity. There are no gaps between what the person believes and how they act, and therefore we can trust that actions are done in accordance with who the individual really is. References Aristotle. (1992, January 3). Nichomachean Ethics. The Internet Classics Archive, X. (D. C. Stevenson, Ed., & W. D. Ross, Trans.) Cambridge, MA, United States. Retrieved from Brennan, J. G. (1992). Foundations of Moral Obligation; The Stockdale Course. Newport, RI: Naval War College Press. Covey, S. (2006). The Speed of Trust: The One Thing That Changes Everything. New York, NY: Free Press. Heinlein, R. A. (1953). Assignment in Eternity. NY, New York: Baen Publishing Enterprises. Hughes, R. L., Ginnett, R. C., & Curphy, G. J. (2012). Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Mill, J. S. (1863). Utilitarianism. London, England: Parker, Son and Bourne. Retrieved from Wakin, M. M. (1976). The Ethics of Leadership. American Behavioral Scientist (Pre-1986), 19(5), 567-588. Retrieved from

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Clinical Trial On Piriformis Anaesthetic Health And Social Care Essay

The purpose of this clinical test is to compare the patients of pure piriformis syndrome treated with local anesthetic alone or a combination of local anesthetic and methylprednisolone. Thirty-one patients diagnosed with piriformis syndrome who received a fluoroscopy guided piriformis musculus injection. There were no signii ¬?cant differences in average baseline VAS scores between the two groups of the survey. There were a signii ¬?cant differences between average baseline and average VAS tonss obtained during telephone interview for both groups.Pain VAS had improved by a agencies of 5.13 and 6.06 compared to the baseline degree in the local anesthetic and steroid groups, severally. It was concluded that no extra benefit from utilizing corticoid was identified after piriformis musculus injection and both bupivacaine entirely and in combination with methylprednisolone have a important consequence in alleviating chronic hurting of pure piriformis syndrome. Piriformis syndrome is an uncommon and frequently underdiagnosed cause of hurting in the cheek part and referred hurting in the lower dorsum and leg. Intolerance to sitting, dyspareunia in females, and sciatica are some of the common symptoms attributed to this syndrome. It is the true diagnosing in 6 % to 8 % of patients with back hurting and sciatica. Mechanism normally accepted is an inflamed or spastic piriformis musculus that compresses the sciatic nervus against the bony pelvic girdle. Trauma, hypertrophy and anatomic fluctuations of musculus and sciatic nervus, infections, myositis ossificans are common cause of piriformis syndrome. Priformis syndrome may be treated by curative stretch, massage, ultrasound, use and non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Caudal steroid injection, injection of piriformis musculus with local anesthetics and steroids or botulinus toxins, and surgical resection of the musculus have been reported as effectual intervention options. Injections may be performed blindly, with musculus electromyography, fluoroscopy, ultrasound, or with computed tomographic or MRI counsel. Nerve stimulators may besides be used to place the sciatic nervus. Local anesthetics interrupt the pain-spasm rhythm and resounding nociceptor transmittal, whereas corticoids have anti-inflammatory belongingss related to suppression of prostaglandin synthesis, decreases in regional degrees of inflammatory go-betweens and by doing a reversible local anesthetic consequence. Eventhough their antiinflammatory belongingss corticoids have been hypothesized to be of benei ¬?t for nervus root infiltration. The emerging grounds besides implies that the durable curative consequence may be obtained with local anesthetics with or without steroids. Tachihara et Al. illustrated that no extra benefit from utilizing corticoid was identified after nervus root infiltration. Therefore, it is suggested that corticoids may be unneeded for nervus root blocks. There are besides inauspicious reactions in response to the disposal of man-made corticoids such as dermatologic conditions, osteonecrosis, peptic ulcer formation, weight addition, hyperglycaemia, Cushing ‘s syndrome and psychiatric symptoms changing from mild temper alterations to wholly developed psychosis. In the present survey, the purpose was to measure the patients of pure piriformis syndrome treated with local anesthetic alone or a combination of local anesthetic and methylprednisolone.MethodsThis survey conducted on retrospective rating of 31 patients diagnosed with piriformis syndrome, at the University of Inonu, School of Medicine, Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Pain Clinic, Malatya, Turkey between 2007 to 2009, who received a fluoroscopy guided piriformis musculus injection. All the patients were given elaborate information on the process and informed written consent was obtained from all of them. The present survey was approved by Local Ethics Committee. Piriformis syndrome was diagnosed from the followers: clinical history, physical scrutiny, EMG findings and by excepting other pathological conditions of the lumbar, sacral, sacroiliac and hep joint countries by physical scrutiny and magnetic resonance imagination or computed imaging if needed. Piriformis syndrome was suggested by hurting on tactual exploration of the sciatic notch and reproduction of hurting with manoeuvres that stretch or contract the piriformis musculus over the sciatic nervus such as forceful internal rotary motion of extended thigh ( Freiberg ‘s Maneuver ) and active hip flexure, abduction or adduction and internal rotary motion by the patient lying with the painful side up, the painful leg flexed and articulatio genus resting on the tabular array ( Beatty ‘s manoeuvre ) . All patients were examined by a individual hurting specializer and non referred by any other doctor. Exclusion standards included patients known allergic reactions to local anesthe tic and bleeding diathesis. Piriformis injections were carried out by a individual hurting specializer. The patients were placed prone on a fluoroscopy tabular array. In a unfertile manner, the cheek country on the affected side was widely prepped and draped. AP position of the hemi-pelvis and cotyloid part was obtained and so a metal marker is placed on 1/3 of sidelong facet of fanciful line between the greater trochanter and sacrum. Local infiltration with 0.5 % prilocaine was used for local anesthesia. Two milliliter of radiographic contrast stuff ( iohexol ) was injected to obtain a satisfactory myogram ( Figure 1 ) . A syringe was prepared with 10 milliliters of 0.5 % bupivacaine in local anesthetic group or 9 milliliter of 0.5 % bupivacaine + 40 milligram methylprednisolone ( 10 milliliters entire ) in steroid group and injected into the piriformis musculus after negative aspiration for blood. Following the process patients should observe alleviation of their usual hurting. All patients were responded good to a individual injection. The patients that were stubborn to local anesthetic and/or steroid medicine were non considered as a exclusive piriformis syndrome and non included to the survey. After the process, the patients were transferred to the recovery room for 1 hr and until any leg numbness subsides. If hurting persisted a 2nd injection was carried out with same manner. The primary result parametric quantity of the survey was hurting assessed by VAS, analgetic usage, hurting on motion and patient satisfaction. Follow-up scrutinies were conducted by telephone interview 6 months after local injection. Analysiss were performed utilizing SPSS 16.0 version ( SPSS Inc. , Chicago, IL ) . The Kolmogorov-Smirnov trial was used to find whether the informations deviated from the normal distribution. Nonparametric informations were evaluated with the Mann-Whitney U trial. Proportions were compared utilizing the Chi-square trial. P & A ; lt ; 0.05 was considered as important.ConsequencesMedical records of 68 patients with piriformis syndrome were evaluated. Thirty-one patients fuli ¬?lled the inclusion standards. The patient ‘s features including age, sex, weight, tallness, involved side and history of hurting until injection were comparable between groups ( Table 1 ) . No signii ¬?cant differences were noted sing first diagnosing before acknowledging hurting clinic, and conventional used intervention ( Table 2 ) . Three patient from local anesthetic group and two patients from steroid group needed to reiterate injection ( Table 2 ) . The injections for these 5 patients were repeated in a twosome of yearss. The other patients did non hold a repetition injection. There were no important differences between average baseline VAS scores between the two groups of the survey. There were important differences between average baseline and average VAS tonss obtained during telephone interview for both groups ( P & A ; lt ; 0.041 ) . Pain VAS had improved by a agencies of 5.1 and 6.1 compared to the baseline degree in the local anesthetic and steroid groups, severally. Adverse effects were seen by 27 % of the steroid and 6 % of the placebo patients. These included sleepiness in 2 steroid group patients, and 1 local anesthetic group patient, hypotension lasted in two yearss in 1 and temper alterations in 1 steroid group patients. There were no other inauspicious effects such as fluctuations of glucose degree, gastro-intestinal hemorrhage, osteonecrosis, infection, or demand of extra medical intervention attributed to the investigational medicines.DiscussionPiriformis syndrome is non to the full understood clinical syndrome and typically characterized by stray sciatic hurting limited to the cheek with radiation down the thigh, without centripetal shortages or neurogenic cause. Robinson described six diagnostic characteristics of piriformis syndrome which were: ( I ) a history of injury to the sacroiliac and gluteal parts ; ( II ) hurting in the part of the sacroiliac articulation, greater sciatic notch, and piriformis musculus that normally extends d own the limb and causes trouble with walking ; ( III ) acute aggravation of hurting caused by crouching or raising ; ( IV ) a tangible allantoid mass, stamp to tactual exploration, over the piriformis musculus on the affected side ; ( V ) a positive Las & A ; egrave ; gue mark ; and ( VI ) gluteal wasting, depending on the continuance of the status. There is no dependable nonsubjective trial to place the piriformis musculus syndrome and this is leads in many instances to great seeking for the beginning of the intractable sciatica among the lumbar pathologies. Many writers have considered injury in the gluteal country as the major cause of piriformis syndrome. Jawish et Al. believed that piriformis syndrome could be related to exacerbated rotators activity as it was observed in patients with difficult physical activity, Walkers, sports and football player or with insistent injury of nervus in patients with drawn-out sitting place. Regardless of the physiopathologic beginning of the c omplex upset, physical scrutiny and imaging surveies should be combined to corroborate the diagnosing. As, piriformis syndrome is a diagnosing of exclusion, although the patients had radicular symptoms were exluded from the survey, other imagination or correlativity to except were more common causes of sciatic hurting, such as lumbar phonograph record herniation, posterior aspect syndromes or spinal stricture, had been obtained from our included patients. The intervention end is directed ab initio toward diminishing ini ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡ammation, associated hurting, and cramp as hurting originates due to the entrapment of the nervus root or to one of its subdivisions, taking to the development of myofascial trigger point. This hurting may besides be due to energy crisis produced from a loss of O and alimentary supply in the presence of an increased metabolic demand. This leads to the release of neuroactive biochemicals that sensitize nearby nervousnesss that in bend initiate the motor and sensory of myofascial trigger point via the cardinal nervous system ensuing in mechanical hypersensitivity. Injection of the 10 milliliter local anesthetic into the abdomen of the musculus as we used in our survey may rinse up such biochemicals. This injection may ensue in musculus relaxation and release of the entrapped nervus. To our cognition, our survey is the i ¬?rst clinical test comparing the effectivity of local anesthetic and methylprednisolone added to the local anesthetic. Naja et Al. compared bupivacaine ( 9 mL 0.5 % bupivacaine in a entire volume of 10 milliliter ) and bupivacaine plus clonidine ( 9 mL 0.5 % bupivacaine and 1 milliliter 150 milligram Catapres ) in a randomised double-blind test included 80 patients with piriformis syndrome who received a nervus stimulator guided piriformis injection. The average VAS tonss obtained after 6 months follow up were 4.5, 3.5 and 3.3 on walking, sitting and lying down, severally. Better consequences with Catapres had been obtained. Benzon et Al. retrospectively reviewed the charts of 19 patients who had received piriformis musculus injections and described a technique for piriformis injection. After 80-100 milligram methyl Pediapred or Aristocort injection to the schiatic nervus and piriformis musculus, 18 of the 19 patients responded to the injectio n, with betterments runing from a few hours to 3 months. The three patients with pure piriformis syndrome had 70-90 % response to piriformis injection for 1-3 months. In Fishman et al.5 survey all participants received an injection of 1.5 milliliter of 2 % Lidocaine and 0.5 milliliter ( 20 milligram ) of Aristocort and improved an norm of 71.1 % , proposing the efi ¬?cacy of corticoid and lidocaine injection combined with physical therapy in handling piriformis syndrome. Filler et Al. reported 162 patients with pure piriformis syndrome given 10 milliliter of bupivacaine and 1 milliliter of celestone: 14.9 % had sustained hurting alleviation runing from 8 months to 6 old ages without return, 7.5 % had 2 to 4 months of alleviation but required a 2nd injection, 36.6 % had 2 to 4 months of alleviation but experienced return after a 2nd injection, 25.4 % of these patients benefited for merely 2 hebdomads, and 15.7 % received no benefit. The consequence of this retrospective survey pointed out that both bupivacaine entirely and in combination with methylprednisolone have a important consequence in alleviating chronic hurting of pure piriformis syndrome and it was concluded that no extra benefit from utilizing corticoid was identified after piriformis musculus injection. Competing involvement: No external support and no viing involvements declared

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Eating Apples at Night: a Korean Superstition

Eating Apples at Night: a Korean Superstition â€Å"An apple a day keeps the doctor away. † This adage is taught to most western children as a way of verbalizing that apples are very healthy to eat. In theory, if we eat an apple every day, we will be so healthy that we won’t need a doctor. Although this is an exaggeration of the health benefits of apples, we can all agree that this is one healthy fruit. Koreans also have the same belief, but there is one exception. It’s believed in Korea that eating an apple at night is actually unhealthy.Eating apples at night would be difficult for one’s stomach to digest, leading to indigestion. This would lead to a sick feeling and make it difficult to get a good night’s sleep. The origins of this theory are unknown, but this belief seems to be well known in Korea. Most people don’t eat apples at night anyway, but Koreans will admit to hearing about this from an elder at some point in their life. A few of those will actually believe it and refrain from eating â€Å"sah gwah† (apples) at night.The fact that apples are very healthy is no mystery, but does that change when eating them at night? Eating food before going to sleep is generally a bad idea because foods that are spicy, heavy or fatty will make it difficult to sleep soundly. Apples, however, have none of those properties and are actually filled with vitamins, minerals and antioxidants that are beneficial for sleeping. For example, apples contain vitamins C, B6 potassium. They help to decrease blood pressure, improve breathing and lower blood sugar.They also help the body to secrete serotonin causing the nerves to relax easier. All of that provides for a good night’s rest. There are also polyphenols (antioxidants) which are found mainly in the skins of apples. They assist the body in breaking down carbohydrates and regulating blood sugar, providing a steady level of energy (so you don’t stay up due to an energy spike). That causes body fat to burn steadily, all while you are sleeping. Most of an apple is really just water, but there is enough fiber to help you feel full as you sleep.This fiber also is good for digestion and aids in cleansing the colon. The fiber is easily digested and soluble in the intestines. If anything is unhealthy, it could be the fact that apples contain (natural) sugar and account for about 10% of the body’s carbohydrate needs. However, combined with all the other healthy properties, the good far outweighs the bad. If all these facts are to be believed, then an apple at night is actually very healthy and helpful to eat, as opposed to the Korean thought that it’s unhealthy.Due to the fiber, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants which help the body to feel full, relaxed and keep blood pressure and sugar levels stable, the apple is a great snack to have before going to bed. Try it for yourself and see if you can feel and enjoy it. Let’s make a new slogan for apples: â€Å"An apple at night makes the body feel alright! † By Stephen Redeker Health information provided by Matthew Lee â€Å"Eating Apples Before Bed† at www. livestrong. com