Friday, December 27, 2019
The younger the individual when they initially start smoking, the greater the possibility of addiction and becoming a lifelong smoker (King, 2015). Tobacco addiction is an issue the United States is struggling with, partially due to the fact that 90% of adult smokers began before or by the age of 18 (Ahmad, 2015). Researchers believe that since younger people become easily addicted to tobacco and older people have an easier time quitting tobacco product use, raising the minimum age for tobacco sales could prevent this addiction from spreading (Ahmad, 2015). Public opinion about tobacco use, the Tobacco 21 bill, CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s computer model, retail, and the comparison in impact between alcohol and tobacco purchasing ages are all consideredÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The state hopes to accomplish this through their Tobacco 21 bill, but they worry about compliances with the retailers of tobacco products. In order to ensure compliance, the State Department of Health Services i n California will conduct 4 random checks annually at tobacco outlets (Ahmad, 2015). There are an estimated 73,700 tobacco selling outlets in California which means there will be a total of 294,800 inspections per year (Ahmad, 2015). To help support the Tobacco 21 bill, the government of California has developed an elaborate computer model. The model calculates the possibilities if the legal tobacco age was raised from 18 to 21 while including multiple aspects in the consideration of the results presented by the model. The model presents drastic changes in smokers of all different age categories over a fifty year span (Ahmad, 2015). The 14-17 year old category is estimated to drop from 15.4% to 2.4%, the 18- 20 year old category could drop from 16.8% to 7.9%, and the 21 and older category could drop from 16.7% to 12.6%. The model also presented the results for the legal age being increased to 19 or 20, and while those results proved that the prevalence dropped, it is not as drastic as if the age were raised to 21. This proves that the age gap between 21 year olds and underage tobacco users is significant enough to reduce the start of use and
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Communication Communication is a process of imparting or transferring thoughts from one entity to another either through language or writing or some other signs (Wrench, McCroskey Richmond, 2008). Language and other methods of communication, which are appropriate in one semantic environment, are usually not utilized in another semantic environment. For example in playgrounds and sports, children use the expressions like Ã¢â¬Å"game planÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Captain of the shipÃ¢â¬ which cannot be used in a different semantic environment for example workplace. Thus language used in one semantic environment requires first Ã¢â¬Å"setting up the modes of discourse and consequently the modes of inquiry of the secondÃ¢â¬ (Postman, 1984). Nonverbal Communication Many of theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦People usually consider themselves more impressive and authoritative if they are taller than their subjects or subordinates (Bull, 1987). Another study proved that smiling more frequently decreases the depression and stress (Freitas-MagalhÃ £es Castro, 2009). Studies have also concluded that women are more familier with nonverbal communication (Agneta Anthony, 2000). Physical Space Physical Space between the people, who are communicating, plays an important role in nonverbal communication; however, different cultures perceive and use space in different manners (Segerstrale Molnar, 1997). While defining the behavior of people regarding personal space in nonverbal communication, the term territory is widely used. According to researchers there are four types of territories: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Primary Territory: it is the space which is very personal to someone like his home Ã¢â¬ ¢ Secondary territory: Although it is not very exclusive and personal, though people feel some attachment to it like a specific bench in the park etc. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Public territory: it is not at all exclusive and only allotted for a limited time, for example a parking space Ã¢â¬ ¢ Interaction territory: it is also a temporary territory created by people when they are communicating. For example when players of a team are talking while walking down the road, people do not disturb them (Hargie Dickson, 2004). Time in Communication The timing, rhythmShow MoreRelatedGender Differences In Communication Are A Set Of Rules1298 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGender differences in communication are a set of rules based off what society perceives as accurate for a male or female in situations. This literature review investigates gender differences in communication, particularly differences in conversational style, body politics and attractiveness, work and education, in relation to learning the roles of gender. Results of the literature review suggest that gender differences exist in various ways. Communication for females indicate women are indirect andRead MorePersonality Theory, Eye Communication, And Family Rules958 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthought of as a basic human need, but it is almost as much of a necessity as the air we breathe, the food we eat, and the water we drink. Throughout the course, I have learned several things, but the information on personality theory, eye communication, and family rules were what I found t o be most interesting. Personality Theory When I read the explanation on personality theory in chapter three I was quite intrigued. DeVito states, Ã¢â¬Å"Each person has a personality theory that says which characteristicsRead MoreThe Postal Acceptance Rule Of Modern Communication Technologies1051 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAbstract. This research paper investigates the case of The Postal Acceptance Rule in modern communication technologies, focused to electronic mail. In order to achieve a pragmatic result, author presupposes that electronic mail is not a traditional communication method for contract partners, however it can be considered a transformation of postal mail to digital world. Introduction It is difficult to imagine the modern world without contracts. They are combination of intention, agreement andRead MoreIntegrated Marketing Communications Is The Exception Rather Than A Rule1451 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmost talked about ideas in marketing during the 1990s was the notion of integrated marketing communications (IMC). And while marketing managers still clearly feel that it is a valuable concept and one that will play an increasingly important role in their companies, there is unfortunately a great deal of evidence to suggest that truly integrated marketing communications is the exception rather than a ruleÃ¢â¬ (Percy and Rosenbaum-Elliott, 2012) Introduction Initial discussions on IMC were based on definitionsRead MoreSocial Media Has Altered The Basic Rules Of Communication Essay1591 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescommunicate. Nowadays, instead of picking up the phone, talking to someone in person or sending mail, humans tend to send text messages, leave voice messages, send email, and interact through the Internet. Social media has altered the basic rules of communication causing people to interact through the web. It engages everyone involved and makes the conversation multidimensional. Encouraging others who are interested to contribute and generating others to exchange ideas are a few other things thatRead MoreDiscuss Whether the Postal Rule Should Continue to Be Applied, and the Scope of Communications Methods(If Any) That Should Be Covered by the Rule2489 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages| |ASSESSMENT : RESEARCH ESSAY | | | |Discuss whether the postal rule should continue to be applied, and the | |scope of communications methods(if any) that should be covered by the rule | | | |Alfred | |22 May, 2012 Read MoreBy Kirti Bansal Ã¢â¬Å"DONÃ¢â¬â¢T MISTAKE LEGIBILITY FOR COMMUNICATIONÃ¢â¬ -DAVID CARSON Rules are made to be1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages By Kirti Bansal Ã¢â¬Å"DONÃ¢â¬â¢T MISTAKE LEGIBILITY FOR COMMUNICATIONÃ¢â¬ -DAVID CARSON Rules are made to be followed, correct? No. According to surfer-turned-designer David Carson rules are meant to be broken Ã¢â¬â not followed. CarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s explorations in the alternative rock and roll magazine Ray Gun pushed boundaries so far it brought catastrophically pleasing results. The peak of David CarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s career commenced with his most recognized work in Beach Culture while art directing a surfing magazine. His creativeRead MoreThe Postal Acceptance Rule1373 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPostal Acceptance Rule (Mailbox Rule): The Postal Acceptance Rule or Mailbox Rule is a common law term for contracts that determines the formation of a contract in which the involved parties are communicating through the mail. The primary thrust or core of the mailbox rule is that the acceptance of an offer is sent before the revocation of the specific offer is received. In a scenario where the communication is sent rejecting the offer while a later communication is also sent in acceptance of theRead MoreInner Office Memo - Security Protocols1254 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCombs Re: Security Protocols in the Law Office Date: 12-19-2011 ______________________________________________________________________________ I have researched your questions with regard to ethical compliance according to the ABA Model Rules on what is permissible to include in the firm website. The following are my findings. Please let me know if you have any additional questions regarding this matter. 1. Does the website have to list the state where s/he is licensed to practiceRead MoreThe organization structure of NJIT931 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesexample, explain how its organizational structure influences how work is organized, how people and groups communicate, and how decisions are made? Before explaining how the organizational structure of NJIT influences the organization of work, communication and decisions, it is essential to understand how the NJIT is structured. Organization structure of NJIT The organization structure of NJIT is complex and highly centralized and hierarchical. It is governed by Board of Trustees and Office of the
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Year 2000 And Computers Essay The year 2000 represents more than just an end to the 1900s. For computersworldwide, it can mean major problem. When software for many of the businesscomputers in use today was in development, many programmers tried to save spaceby programming computers only to deal with years in the 20th century. Today,though, many computer users discover problems anytime they are dealing with adate that falls after the next turn-of-the-century. When calculations involvingthe year 2000 or after come up on the computer screen, many computers only read00 and not know the correct date. They malfunction or fail. The loomingprospect of disabled computer systems and paralyzed enterprises around the worldmakes the year 2000 one of the most critical and universal challenges to everface the IT industry, the magazine Managing Office Technology reported inDecember 1997 ( Marcoccio and Matthew, online). Talking of GartnerGroupresearch, it added, While the date change crisis has achieved maximumawareness, 30 per cent of all companies worldwide have not yet started on anyYear 2000 compliancy efforts, and 40 percent have not progressed to a pointwhere they will be certain not to encounter significant mission-criticalfailures by 2000. Having the most problems are health, care, education,government agencies and small and medium-sized companies (Marcoccio, online,1999)Large companies seem to be the farthest along, perhaps because they havethe greatest resources from which to pull money and help. The leading largecompany industry is insurance, with financial services trailing just slightly,and banking behind that. Yet many businesses have been hard at work trying toupdate their source code, sometimes by reprogramming and sometimes by replacingrather than reprogramming software. Sometimes they must replace with a vendorpackage, retire the application, or even get rid of the entire businessprospect. Managing Office Technology said that most enterprises expect to repairat least 40 percent of their a pplications (Marcoccio and Matthew, online, 1997). The effort is expected to cost nearly a trillion dollars, and some say therearent enough knowledgeable programmers to fill the demand for these fixes. Upgrading software has become a booming business, one that some say isntbooming enough to meet all the demand. While mainframes may have the biggestproblem, desktops arent immune, even if they have been manufactured fairlyrecently. PCs manufactured in the past two years have exhibited someBIOS-related year 2000 problems. These are low-level instructions for thekeyboard, monitor, and disk drives. Craig Luis, computer service manager atLinfield College in McMinnville, OR, said he just bought a logic board lastNovember and it wasnt year 2000 compliant. To cope with this problem some arebuying a millennium bug fix and detection tool as part of a Nuts BoltsDeluxe utility suite for PCs (Ung, online, 1998). No individual, company, orcountry is immune because many computer programs are inter-linked and becausethere arent enough engineers and programmers available to deal with it even ifthey knew where to look and what to do, according to the paper The Year2000 Computer Problem, put out by A ction 2000. Industries in the UnitedStates, Canada, and Australia lead the pack in dealing with the problem, whileWestern Europe, South Africa, Japan, and other countries follow. Parts of Asia,central Africa, central South America, Mexico, Thailand, and other countries arebehind even farther (Marcoccio, online, 1997). To cope with the situation,Europe has set up Action 2000 to coordinate public sector contingency planningso that public services such as telecommunications, health services, transportmanagement systems, social security, and emergency services do not suffer majordisruptions. The European Commission also is concerned because the need forprogrammers comes at a time when Europe is trying to change to one currency, andthe workload may be too much for the available manpower to handle. Not only isthere that problem, but the workload overseas has been hampered by extensivecomputerized preparations for the introduction of a single currency in 1992 (Bevins,online, 1998). Its not just mainframe computers that have the problem. Securityalarms, credit card machines, elevators, and hundreds of other appliances withcomputer chips could fail, says U.S. Rep. Stephen Horn (The Year 2000 online,1997). He says the U.S. government is only 20 percent ready. Although warningsare very clear, governments are slow to act. While the U.S. Senate has at leasttwo bills in committee, the U.S. House of Representatives passed H.R. 3116 inFebruary. The Examination Parity and Year 2000 Readiness for FinancialInstitutions Act requires federal financial regulatory agencies to offerseminars to financial institutions on the implications of the Year 2000 problemand tell them how to solve the common problems. It also extends authority to theOffice of Thrift Supervision and the National Credit Union Administration toexamine the operations of service corporations or other entities that performservices under contract for thrifts and credit unions (House, online, 1998)Computers
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Ninthusha Satkunalingam Essay Example Paper Ninthusha Satkunalingam Essay Introduction Dear Ms C Walsh,IÃ¢â¬â¢m writing to inform you about the different sources of finance that are available to you. There are twelve different source of finance available these are: Share issuesWhen your company wants capital to finance business or to run your business activities it goes to the public and issue shares to produce amount from the public and people pay the amount in share capital of your company which mean your shares in share capital of your business this process is called share issue. The advantage of share issues is that your business object becomes more profitable and has a huge amount of money to buy assets and make improvement on your business.A business object becomes more profitable and has a huge amount of money to buy assets and advance their business. The disadvantage could be that your business becomes dependent on the public, if the public decides your business wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t worth the investment and take it away, the business will go into negative equality a nd eventually your business will be in debt. LeasingLeasing something is the same as renting it. You pay the leasing every month for the use of the equipment. The contract made with the lessor lasts a number of years estimated between 2 and 10 depending weather the cost on it. This shows that you can have full us of the equipment without having to pay the full cost of the item in straight on go. Over the time of the lease, the leasing company will maintain the price of the item plus their charger which means you only need to deposit a small amount at the start of the lease. At the end of the lease you have a decision to choose if you want to carry in leasing at a low rate or to sell the product to another person or to another company.An example to your business could be leasing vehicles, or office equipment. An advantage of leasing could be that leasing is inflation friendly. As the costs go up over five years you still pay the same rate as when you began the lease. Another advantag e could be there is less upfront cash outlay which means you do not need to make large cash payments for the purchase of needed equipment. A disadvantage could be that you have a responsibility to continue making payments. You have no fairness until you decide to purchase the equipment at the end of the lease term, at which point the equipment may have criticised suggestively.http://www.bizhelp24.com/money/business-finance/leasing-in-business-3.html FactoringFactoring is a quick and easy way of turning your invoices into cash. Factoring can be described as it is selling your invoices to a factoring company. You also get cash quickly, and also donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to collect the debt however you may lose some of the value of the invoice. The factoring company gets the debt and has to collect it. They make a profit by paying you less cash than they actually value of the invoice. The disadvantage could be your ability to borrow from other sources may be reduced. Another advantage could be that if you were to end an arrangement with a factor you will have to pay off any money they have advanced you on invoices if the customer has not paid them yet. This may require some business planning. An advantage could be that the cash is released as soon as orders are invoiced and is available for capital investment and funding of your next orders. Another advantage could be that factors may give you useful information about the credit standing of your customers and they can help you to negotiate better terms with your suppliers.http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail?item1073791093;type=RESOURCES Overdraft facilitiesOverdraft facility is when you are allowed to be overdrawn up to a certain amount without being charged or having to pay direct debits etc. however you maybe charge a small amount of interest if you use the facility. An advantage could be that itÃ¢â¬â¢s a convenience as you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about penalty fees if you temporarily donÃ¢â¬â¢t h ave enough money in your account. A disadvantage could be that there will be a lot of interest to pay, and being down below zero will make it hard to pay off. If the overdraft is unauthorised, there may be huge fees to pay each day, or with each new small transaction, there may be an 2nd, 3rd, 4th etc. full penalty fee for each transaction.http://uk.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?q20110627063140AA7is40 Bank loanA bank loan provides medium or long term finance. A bank loan is the most common form of loan capital for a business. The bank sets the fixed period over which the loan is given, the rate of interest and the timing and amount of repayments. The banks will usually require that the business offers some security for the loan, although in the case of a start-up this security often comes in the form of personal guarantees provided by the entrepreneur. Bank loans are good for financing investment in fixed assets. They are generally charged at a low rate of interest that a bank ov erdraft. The interest rate can be either fixed or variable. The advantage of getting a bank load could be that you can borrow large amounts of money. The disadvantage is that some loans carry a prepayment penalty, preventing the borrower from paying the note off early without incurring extra cost. Another disadvantage could be that Borrowing too much money can lead to decreased cash flow and payments can even overtake income in some cases; this is why many loan payments are limited to a certain percentage of a borrowerÃ¢â¬â¢s income.http://www.ehow.com/facts_4761923_advantages-disadvantages-bank-loan.html#ixzz1pyMtD7tF Friends and familyFriends and family could help in your business for support such as giving you addition business funding. An advantage could be that asking family and friends can be quicker and cheaper to arrange and the interest of repayment terms may be more flexible than a bank loan. A disadvantage could be that conflicts could happen between them and relationsh ip can break. Hire purchaseHire purchase is about ownership. With a hire purchase agreement, after all the payments have been made, your business customer becomes the owner of the equipment. This ownership transfer either automatically or on payment of an option to purchase fee. For tax purposes, from the beginning of the agreement the business customer is treated as the owner of the equipment and so can claim capital allowances. Capital allowances can be a significant tax incentive for businesses to invest in new plant and machinery or to upgrade information systems. Under a hire purchase agreement, the business customer is normally responsible for maintenance of the equipment. An advantage of having hire purchase could be that you can have something you canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford. Another advantage could be that you can save your own business money. A disadvantage could be that if you miss the payments, you lose the item plus what you already paid. Another disadvantage could be that if y ou break the item, you still have to play for it as well as having a replace it. Reinvest profitReinvested profits are also known as retained profit or earnings. All the profits you earn in your business are put back into the business for its own use. For example expanding your business to gain more profits. An advantage could be that your business may have the flexibility to decide whether to use capital or borrowings to expand or improve. Another advantage could be that you could be building equity in your business and therefore increasing the value of the shares. A disadvantage could be that you may not have any other source of income outside of your business and may not be able to afford to reinvest a significant portion of their profits. Another disadvantage could be that your business only gets to retain earnings if it makes a profit. Retained earnings are profits after corporation tax and dividends are paid out. Sometimes it is better to run the company at breakeven and pay l ess tax. Own savingsOwn savings can be defined as money set aside for the purpose of future use. Saving is usually representing only one part of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s assets. An advantage could be that if you wanted to expand your business you decided how much youÃ¢â¬â¢d like to invest into your business but it is at your own risk. It also gives your business a financial improvement. A disadvantage could be that youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need more working capital than you think. Government grantGovernment grant is where the government provides support to businesses both financially, in the form of grants, and through access to expert advice, information and services. Most government grants require you to match the funds you are being awarded. The grant covers a proportion of the money needed, while you supply the rest. You must also demonstrate that your business can provide its share of the total costs. An advantage of having government grant could be that they provide huge financial suppor t and rewards with just one offer. Another advantage is that who receives government grant find it easier to increase money from other government and private sources. A disadvantages could be that Government grants often come out with a set of rules for who are eligible to apply that can be so specific that it excludes many businesses. And they tend to demand certain activities must be included in any project to be funded which may increase businesses expenses. Commercial mortgageCommercial mortgage is the most popular type of mortgage used to buy buildings and land for business purposes. If you were going to have commercial mortgage rates and payment terms are negotiated in each loan by the borrower and the lender. Commercial mortgages have commitment fees and can be quite profitable for mortgage lenders, although there is some default risk. An advantage could they can give your business a large assets which is likely to increase in value. Another advantage could be that the loan r epayments involved can be similar to your current rental costs so you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t need to adjust your budgets which this depends on the mortgage. A disadvantage could be that when you sign a commercial mortgage contract you are committing to a period of 10 to 30 years. Also if you failed to make repayments on time you may have to pay additional interest.I would advise you in your expansion to use possibly a bank loan, own savings, reinvest profits source of finance. I think you could use a bank loan due to if you can demonstrate your business can generate enough profits to proper and then pay them back then thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a good option for you. Also the benefit could be that large amount cab be borrowed and also lower interest rates than overdrafts. Own savings could also be a good choice as I think you wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about financial problems as you already have them and you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about paying someone back. Reinvest is also a good option due to yo ur using your own profits to expand your business and make it bigger then more customers are likely to come then you can gain more profits. Thank youYou sincerelyNinthusha Satkunalingam Ninthusha Satkunalingam Essay Thank you for reading this Sample!