Friday, December 27, 2019

Tobacco Of Tobacco And Tobacco - 1406 Words

The younger the individual when they initially start smoking, the greater the possibility of addiction and becoming a lifelong smoker (King, 2015). Tobacco addiction is an issue the United States is struggling with, partially due to the fact that 90% of adult smokers began before or by the age of 18 (Ahmad, 2015). Researchers believe that since younger people become easily addicted to tobacco and older people have an easier time quitting tobacco product use, raising the minimum age for tobacco sales could prevent this addiction from spreading (Ahmad, 2015). Public opinion about tobacco use, the Tobacco 21 bill, California’s computer model, retail, and the comparison in impact between alcohol and tobacco purchasing ages are all considered†¦show more content†¦The state hopes to accomplish this through their Tobacco 21 bill, but they worry about compliances with the retailers of tobacco products. In order to ensure compliance, the State Department of Health Services i n California will conduct 4 random checks annually at tobacco outlets (Ahmad, 2015). There are an estimated 73,700 tobacco selling outlets in California which means there will be a total of 294,800 inspections per year (Ahmad, 2015). To help support the Tobacco 21 bill, the government of California has developed an elaborate computer model. The model calculates the possibilities if the legal tobacco age was raised from 18 to 21 while including multiple aspects in the consideration of the results presented by the model. The model presents drastic changes in smokers of all different age categories over a fifty year span (Ahmad, 2015). The 14-17 year old category is estimated to drop from 15.4% to 2.4%, the 18- 20 year old category could drop from 16.8% to 7.9%, and the 21 and older category could drop from 16.7% to 12.6%. The model also presented the results for the legal age being increased to 19 or 20, and while those results proved that the prevalence dropped, it is not as drastic as if the age were raised to 21. This proves that the age gap between 21 year olds and underage tobacco users is significant enough to reduce the start of use and

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Essay on Rules of Communication - 962 Words

Communication Communication is a process of imparting or transferring thoughts from one entity to another either through language or writing or some other signs (Wrench, McCroskey Richmond, 2008). Language and other methods of communication, which are appropriate in one semantic environment, are usually not utilized in another semantic environment. For example in playgrounds and sports, children use the expressions like â€Å"game plan† or â€Å"Captain of the ship† which cannot be used in a different semantic environment for example workplace. Thus language used in one semantic environment requires first â€Å"setting up the modes of discourse and consequently the modes of inquiry of the second† (Postman, 1984). Nonverbal Communication Many of the†¦show more content†¦People usually consider themselves more impressive and authoritative if they are taller than their subjects or subordinates (Bull, 1987). Another study proved that smiling more frequently decreases the depression and stress (Freitas-Magalhà £es Castro, 2009). Studies have also concluded that women are more familier with nonverbal communication (Agneta Anthony, 2000). Physical Space Physical Space between the people, who are communicating, plays an important role in nonverbal communication; however, different cultures perceive and use space in different manners (Segerstrale Molnar, 1997). While defining the behavior of people regarding personal space in nonverbal communication, the term territory is widely used. According to researchers there are four types of territories: †¢ Primary Territory: it is the space which is very personal to someone like his home †¢ Secondary territory: Although it is not very exclusive and personal, though people feel some attachment to it like a specific bench in the park etc. †¢ Public territory: it is not at all exclusive and only allotted for a limited time, for example a parking space †¢ Interaction territory: it is also a temporary territory created by people when they are communicating. For example when players of a team are talking while walking down the road, people do not disturb them (Hargie Dickson, 2004). Time in Communication The timing, rhythmShow MoreRelatedGender Differences In Communication Are A Set Of Rules1298 Words   |  6 PagesGender differences in communication are a set of rules based off what society perceives as accurate for a male or female in situations. This literature review investigates gender differences in communication, particularly differences in conversational style, body politics and attractiveness, work and education, in relation to learning the roles of gender. Results of the literature review suggest that gender differences exist in various ways. Communication for females indicate women are indirect andRead MorePersonality Theory, Eye Communication, And Family Rules958 Words   |  4 Pagesthought of as a basic human need, but it is almost as much of a necessity as the air we breathe, the food we eat, and the water we drink. Throughout the course, I have learned several things, but the information on personality theory, eye communication, and family rules were what I found t o be most interesting. Personality Theory When I read the explanation on personality theory in chapter three I was quite intrigued. DeVito states, â€Å"Each person has a personality theory that says which characteristicsRead MoreThe Postal Acceptance Rule Of Modern Communication Technologies1051 Words   |  5 PagesAbstract. This research paper investigates the case of The Postal Acceptance Rule in modern communication technologies, focused to electronic mail. In order to achieve a pragmatic result, author presupposes that electronic mail is not a traditional communication method for contract partners, however it can be considered a transformation of postal mail to digital world. Introduction It is difficult to imagine the modern world without contracts. They are combination of intention, agreement andRead MoreIntegrated Marketing Communications Is The Exception Rather Than A Rule1451 Words   |  6 Pagesmost talked about ideas in marketing during the 1990s was the notion of integrated marketing communications (IMC). And while marketing managers still clearly feel that it is a valuable concept and one that will play an increasingly important role in their companies, there is unfortunately a great deal of evidence to suggest that truly integrated marketing communications is the exception rather than a rule† (Percy and Rosenbaum-Elliott, 2012) Introduction Initial discussions on IMC were based on definitionsRead MoreSocial Media Has Altered The Basic Rules Of Communication Essay1591 Words   |  7 Pagescommunicate. Nowadays, instead of picking up the phone, talking to someone in person or sending mail, humans tend to send text messages, leave voice messages, send email, and interact through the Internet. Social media has altered the basic rules of communication causing people to interact through the web. It engages everyone involved and makes the conversation multidimensional. Encouraging others who are interested to contribute and generating others to exchange ideas are a few other things thatRead MoreDiscuss Whether the Postal Rule Should Continue to Be Applied, and the Scope of Communications Methods(If Any) That Should Be Covered by the Rule2489 Words   |  10 Pages| |ASSESSMENT : RESEARCH ESSAY | | | |Discuss whether the postal rule should continue to be applied, and the | |scope of communications methods(if any) that should be covered by the rule | | | |Alfred | |22 May, 2012 Read MoreBy Kirti Bansal â€Å"DON’T MISTAKE LEGIBILITY FOR COMMUNICATION†-DAVID CARSON Rules are made to be1300 Words   |  6 Pages By Kirti Bansal â€Å"DON’T MISTAKE LEGIBILITY FOR COMMUNICATION†-DAVID CARSON Rules are made to be followed, correct? No. According to surfer-turned-designer David Carson rules are meant to be broken – not followed. Carson’s explorations in the alternative rock and roll magazine Ray Gun pushed boundaries so far it brought catastrophically pleasing results. The peak of David Carson’s career commenced with his most recognized work in Beach Culture while art directing a surfing magazine. His creativeRead MoreThe Postal Acceptance Rule1373 Words   |  5 PagesPostal Acceptance Rule (Mailbox Rule): The Postal Acceptance Rule or Mailbox Rule is a common law term for contracts that determines the formation of a contract in which the involved parties are communicating through the mail. The primary thrust or core of the mailbox rule is that the acceptance of an offer is sent before the revocation of the specific offer is received. In a scenario where the communication is sent rejecting the offer while a later communication is also sent in acceptance of theRead MoreInner Office Memo - Security Protocols1254 Words   |  6 PagesCombs Re: Security Protocols in the Law Office Date: 12-19-2011 ______________________________________________________________________________ I have researched your questions with regard to ethical compliance according to the ABA Model Rules on what is permissible to include in the firm website. The following are my findings. Please let me know if you have any additional questions regarding this matter. 1. Does the website have to list the state where s/he is licensed to practiceRead MoreThe organization structure of NJIT931 Words   |  4 Pagesexample, explain how its organizational structure influences how work is organized, how people and groups communicate, and how decisions are made? Before explaining how the organizational structure of NJIT influences the organization of work, communication and decisions, it is essential to understand how the NJIT is structured. Organization structure of NJIT The organization structure of NJIT is complex and highly centralized and hierarchical. It is governed by Board of Trustees and Office of the

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Year 2000 And Computers Essay Example For Students

Year 2000 And Computers Essay The year 2000 represents more than just an end to the 1900s. For computersworldwide, it can mean major problem. When software for many of the businesscomputers in use today was in development, many programmers tried to save spaceby programming computers only to deal with years in the 20th century. Today,though, many computer users discover problems anytime they are dealing with adate that falls after the next turn-of-the-century. When calculations involvingthe year 2000 or after come up on the computer screen, many computers only read00 and not know the correct date. They malfunction or fail. The loomingprospect of disabled computer systems and paralyzed enterprises around the worldmakes the year 2000 one of the most critical and universal challenges to everface the IT industry, the magazine Managing Office Technology reported inDecember 1997 ( Marcoccio and Matthew, online). Talking of GartnerGroupresearch, it added, While the date change crisis has achieved maximumawareness, 30 per cent of all companies worldwide have not yet started on anyYear 2000 compliancy efforts, and 40 percent have not progressed to a pointwhere they will be certain not to encounter significant mission-criticalfailures by 2000. Having the most problems are health, care, education,government agencies and small and medium-sized companies (Marcoccio, online,1999)Large companies seem to be the farthest along, perhaps because they havethe greatest resources from which to pull money and help. The leading largecompany industry is insurance, with financial services trailing just slightly,and banking behind that. Yet many businesses have been hard at work trying toupdate their source code, sometimes by reprogramming and sometimes by replacingrather than reprogramming software. Sometimes they must replace with a vendorpackage, retire the application, or even get rid of the entire businessprospect. Managing Office Technology said that most enterprises expect to repairat least 40 percent of their a pplications (Marcoccio and Matthew, online, 1997). The effort is expected to cost nearly a trillion dollars, and some say therearent enough knowledgeable programmers to fill the demand for these fixes. Upgrading software has become a booming business, one that some say isntbooming enough to meet all the demand. While mainframes may have the biggestproblem, desktops arent immune, even if they have been manufactured fairlyrecently. PCs manufactured in the past two years have exhibited someBIOS-related year 2000 problems. These are low-level instructions for thekeyboard, monitor, and disk drives. Craig Luis, computer service manager atLinfield College in McMinnville, OR, said he just bought a logic board lastNovember and it wasnt year 2000 compliant. To cope with this problem some arebuying a millennium bug fix and detection tool as part of a Nuts BoltsDeluxe utility suite for PCs (Ung, online, 1998). No individual, company, orcountry is immune because many computer programs are inter-linked and becausethere arent enough engineers and programmers available to deal with it even ifthey knew where to look and what to do, according to the paper The Year2000 Computer Problem, put out by A ction 2000. Industries in the UnitedStates, Canada, and Australia lead the pack in dealing with the problem, whileWestern Europe, South Africa, Japan, and other countries follow. Parts of Asia,central Africa, central South America, Mexico, Thailand, and other countries arebehind even farther (Marcoccio, online, 1997). To cope with the situation,Europe has set up Action 2000 to coordinate public sector contingency planningso that public services such as telecommunications, health services, transportmanagement systems, social security, and emergency services do not suffer majordisruptions. The European Commission also is concerned because the need forprogrammers comes at a time when Europe is trying to change to one currency, andthe workload may be too much for the available manpower to handle. Not only isthere that problem, but the workload overseas has been hampered by extensivecomputerized preparations for the introduction of a single currency in 1992 (Bevins,online, 1998). Its not just mainframe computers that have the problem. Securityalarms, credit card machines, elevators, and hundreds of other appliances withcomputer chips could fail, says U.S. Rep. Stephen Horn (The Year 2000 online,1997). He says the U.S. government is only 20 percent ready. Although warningsare very clear, governments are slow to act. While the U.S. Senate has at leasttwo bills in committee, the U.S. House of Representatives passed H.R. 3116 inFebruary. The Examination Parity and Year 2000 Readiness for FinancialInstitutions Act requires federal financial regulatory agencies to offerseminars to financial institutions on the implications of the Year 2000 problemand tell them how to solve the common problems. It also extends authority to theOffice of Thrift Supervision and the National Credit Union Administration toexamine the operations of service corporations or other entities that performservices under contract for thrifts and credit unions (House, online, 1998)Computers

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Ninthusha Satkunalingam Essay Example Essay Example

Ninthusha Satkunalingam Essay Example Paper Ninthusha Satkunalingam Essay Introduction Dear Ms C Walsh,I’m writing to inform you about the different sources of finance that are available to you. There are twelve different source of finance available these are: Share issuesWhen your company wants capital to finance business or to run your business activities it goes to the public and issue shares to produce amount from the public and people pay the amount in share capital of your company which mean your shares in share capital of your business this process is called share issue. The advantage of share issues is that your business object becomes more profitable and has a huge amount of money to buy assets and make improvement on your business.A business object becomes more profitable and has a huge amount of money to buy assets and advance their business. The disadvantage could be that your business becomes dependent on the public, if the public decides your business wasn’t worth the investment and take it away, the business will go into negative equality a nd eventually your business will be in debt. LeasingLeasing something is the same as renting it. You pay the leasing every month for the use of the equipment. The contract made with the lessor lasts a number of years estimated between 2 and 10 depending weather the cost on it. This shows that you can have full us of the equipment without having to pay the full cost of the item in straight on go. Over the time of the lease, the leasing company will maintain the price of the item plus their charger which means you only need to deposit a small amount at the start of the lease. At the end of the lease you have a decision to choose if you want to carry in leasing at a low rate or to sell the product to another person or to another company.An example to your business could be leasing vehicles, or office equipment. An advantage of leasing could be that leasing is inflation friendly. As the costs go up over five years you still pay the same rate as when you began the lease. Another advantag e could be there is less upfront cash outlay which means you do not need to make large cash payments for the purchase of needed equipment. A disadvantage could be that you have a responsibility to continue making payments. You have no fairness until you decide to purchase the equipment at the end of the lease term, at which point the equipment may have criticised suggestively. FactoringFactoring is a quick and easy way of turning your invoices into cash. Factoring can be described as it is selling your invoices to a factoring company. You also get cash quickly, and also don’t have to collect the debt however you may lose some of the value of the invoice. The factoring company gets the debt and has to collect it. They make a profit by paying you less cash than they actually value of the invoice. The disadvantage could be your ability to borrow from other sources may be reduced. Another advantage could be that if you were to end an arrangement with a factor you will have to pay off any money they have advanced you on invoices if the customer has not paid them yet. This may require some business planning. An advantage could be that the cash is released as soon as orders are invoiced and is available for capital investment and funding of your next orders. Another advantage could be that factors may give you useful information about the credit standing of your customers and they can help you to negotiate better terms with your suppliers.;type=RESOURCES Overdraft facilitiesOverdraft facility is when you are allowed to be overdrawn up to a certain amount without being charged or having to pay direct debits etc. however you maybe charge a small amount of interest if you use the facility. An advantage could be that it’s a convenience as you don’t have to worry about penalty fees if you temporarily don’t h ave enough money in your account. A disadvantage could be that there will be a lot of interest to pay, and being down below zero will make it hard to pay off. If the overdraft is unauthorised, there may be huge fees to pay each day, or with each new small transaction, there may be an 2nd, 3rd, 4th etc. full penalty fee for each transaction. Bank loanA bank loan provides medium or long term finance. A bank loan is the most common form of loan capital for a business. The bank sets the fixed period over which the loan is given, the rate of interest and the timing and amount of repayments. The banks will usually require that the business offers some security for the loan, although in the case of a start-up this security often comes in the form of personal guarantees provided by the entrepreneur. Bank loans are good for financing investment in fixed assets. They are generally charged at a low rate of interest that a bank ov erdraft. The interest rate can be either fixed or variable. The advantage of getting a bank load could be that you can borrow large amounts of money. The disadvantage is that some loans carry a prepayment penalty, preventing the borrower from paying the note off early without incurring extra cost. Another disadvantage could be that Borrowing too much money can lead to decreased cash flow and payments can even overtake income in some cases; this is why many loan payments are limited to a certain percentage of a borrower’s income. Friends and familyFriends and family could help in your business for support such as giving you addition business funding. An advantage could be that asking family and friends can be quicker and cheaper to arrange and the interest of repayment terms may be more flexible than a bank loan. A disadvantage could be that conflicts could happen between them and relationsh ip can break. Hire purchaseHire purchase is about ownership. With a hire purchase agreement, after all the payments have been made, your business customer becomes the owner of the equipment. This ownership transfer either automatically or on payment of an option to purchase fee. For tax purposes, from the beginning of the agreement the business customer is treated as the owner of the equipment and so can claim capital allowances. Capital allowances can be a significant tax incentive for businesses to invest in new plant and machinery or to upgrade information systems. Under a hire purchase agreement, the business customer is normally responsible for maintenance of the equipment. An advantage of having hire purchase could be that you can have something you can’t afford. Another advantage could be that you can save your own business money. A disadvantage could be that if you miss the payments, you lose the item plus what you already paid. Another disadvantage could be that if y ou break the item, you still have to play for it as well as having a replace it. Reinvest profitReinvested profits are also known as retained profit or earnings. All the profits you earn in your business are put back into the business for its own use. For example expanding your business to gain more profits. An advantage could be that your business may have the flexibility to decide whether to use capital or borrowings to expand or improve. Another advantage could be that you could be building equity in your business and therefore increasing the value of the shares. A disadvantage could be that you may not have any other source of income outside of your business and may not be able to afford to reinvest a significant portion of their profits. Another disadvantage could be that your business only gets to retain earnings if it makes a profit. Retained earnings are profits after corporation tax and dividends are paid out. Sometimes it is better to run the company at breakeven and pay l ess tax. Own savingsOwn savings can be defined as money set aside for the purpose of future use. Saving is usually representing only one part of an individual’s assets. An advantage could be that if you wanted to expand your business you decided how much you’d like to invest into your business but it is at your own risk. It also gives your business a financial improvement. A disadvantage could be that you’ll need more working capital than you think. Government grantGovernment grant is where the government provides support to businesses both financially, in the form of grants, and through access to expert advice, information and services. Most government grants require you to match the funds you are being awarded. The grant covers a proportion of the money needed, while you supply the rest. You must also demonstrate that your business can provide its share of the total costs. An advantage of having government grant could be that they provide huge financial suppor t and rewards with just one offer. Another advantage is that who receives government grant find it easier to increase money from other government and private sources. A disadvantages could be that Government grants often come out with a set of rules for who are eligible to apply that can be so specific that it excludes many businesses. And they tend to demand certain activities must be included in any project to be funded which may increase businesses expenses. Commercial mortgageCommercial mortgage is the most popular type of mortgage used to buy buildings and land for business purposes. If you were going to have commercial mortgage rates and payment terms are negotiated in each loan by the borrower and the lender. Commercial mortgages have commitment fees and can be quite profitable for mortgage lenders, although there is some default risk. An advantage could they can give your business a large assets which is likely to increase in value. Another advantage could be that the loan r epayments involved can be similar to your current rental costs so you won’t need to adjust your budgets which this depends on the mortgage. A disadvantage could be that when you sign a commercial mortgage contract you are committing to a period of 10 to 30 years. Also if you failed to make repayments on time you may have to pay additional interest.I would advise you in your expansion to use possibly a bank loan, own savings, reinvest profits source of finance. I think you could use a bank loan due to if you can demonstrate your business can generate enough profits to proper and then pay them back then that’s a good option for you. Also the benefit could be that large amount cab be borrowed and also lower interest rates than overdrafts. Own savings could also be a good choice as I think you wouldn’t have to worry about financial problems as you already have them and you don’t have to worry about paying someone back. Reinvest is also a good option due to yo ur using your own profits to expand your business and make it bigger then more customers are likely to come then you can gain more profits. Thank youYou sincerelyNinthusha Satkunalingam Ninthusha Satkunalingam Essay Thank you for reading this Sample!

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Sears And Roebuck Company Essays - Sears Holdings, Hoffman Estates

Sears And Roebuck Company Business Marketing Term Paper Sears and Roebuck Company For this paper I will be looking at an old established company, that has re-addressed its target market. To increase penetration in the market and expand in new markets, Sears has refocused its market concept. In the past Sears was where your grandparents shopped for quality product. As they sat back and enjoyed the comfort of their brand name and reaped the benefits, other companies sliced away at the market with new concepts in advertising until about five years ago when Sears woke up to a lagging profit margin. Sears began a recovery to regain market shares lost through complacency. To do this they gathered their staff and commenced to focus on new innovative techniques to cater to the needs of their consumers. First they looked at the production which was well established but could be streamlined. Some items could be eliminated or replaced by other brand name products to give the consumer a broader choice of items. For example they sold the Advantis computer branch to IBM when the projected competition would limit revenues in this area. They also negotiated lucrative contracts with brand name companies for the exclusive retailing rights for their product, an example of this is the Nordic Track home fitness equipment in January of this year. They targeted school age children with the new styles, which they refer to as the ?Relaxed Uniformity? which increased sales in July of 1998. This helped bring in the younger and health conscious consumers who did not feel that the Sears brand name was right for them. This stream lining effort would include shutting down some of the lagging catalog sales offices. This allowed them to establish more competitive prices in the market and better returns for their shareholders. This led to an increase in domestic revenues by 4.2 percent in 1998. The next areas they looked at were the location of their stores and the placement of the products in their stores. Some of the older stores which did not have a profit margin that warranted the expense of their upkeep where eliminated to cut overhead expenses. In addition, using trend analysis focusing on consumer habits, they took a hard look at the layout of the stores to see if they could improve sales through a better display or more efficient floor plans. Sears decided to set up displays, which bring the consumer walking by into the store and the product that has the return buyer's interest in the back of store. With this in mind they revamped the floor plans and placed the items they knew the patron would search out to the back of the stores which forced the customer to pass by other product they did not realize was stocked by Sears. The placement of other products, which had lagged in the past, in high traffic areas, increased the sales of those items. Last but not least, once Sears had the company market strategy drawn out; they needed to inform the public of the changes they had made and figure out how they could meet the consumers needs. Sears re-launched its successful Softer Side of Sears advertising campaign that helped the company's turnaround by highlighting its renewed focus on women's apparel. The new version of the Softer Side campaign, which included print and broadcast ads, invited customers to Take Another Look at the fashions available at Sears. The Softer Side of Sears? campaign achieves the key marketing objectives. It changes customers' perception of Sears, drives traffic into the stores, and demonstrates Sears' commitment to offering customers stylish and relevant women's apparel, said Arthur C. Martinez, chairman and chief executive officer of Sears. Now the challenge is to build greater loyalty with our customer and reinforce Sears position as a destination place for apparel that fits her lifestyle. Reinforcing Sears' commitment to serving its primary customer, a woman age 25 to 54 with a moderate household income, family and home. This campaign builds upon and personalizes Sears' invitation to Come See the Softer Side of Sears by illustrating that Sears has more than fashionable apparel; it has the right apparel for her. The original Softer Side campaign, Developed by Young & Rubicam

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Scientific Definition of a Laser

Scientific Definition of a Laser A laser is a device which is built on the principles of quantum mechanics to create a beam of light where all of the photons are in a coherent state - usually with the same frequency and phase. (Most light sources emit incoherent light, where the phase varies randomly.) Among the other effects, this means that the light from a laser is often tightly focused and does not diverge much, resulting in the traditional laser beam. How a Laser Works In simplest terms, a laser uses light to stimulate the electrons in a gain medium into an excited state (called optical pumping). When the electrons collapse into the lower-energy unexcited state, they emit photons. These photons pass between two mirrors, so there are more and more photons exciting the gain medium, amplifying the intensity of the beam. A narrow hole in one of the mirrors allows a small amount of the light to escape (i.e. the laser beam itself). Who Developed the Laser This process is based on work by Albert Einstein in 1917 and many others. Physicists Charles H. Townes, Nicolay Basov, and Aleksandr Prokhorov received the 1964 Nobel Prize in Physics for their development of the earliest laser prototypes. Alfred Kastler received the 1966 Nobel Prize in Physics for his 1950 description of optical pumping. On May 16, 1960, Theodore Maiman demonstrated the first working laser. Other Types of Laser The light of a laser does not need to be in the visible spectrum but can be any sort of electromagnetic radiation. A maser, for example, is a type of laser that emits microwave radiation instead of visible light. (The maser was actually developed before the more general laser. For a while, the visible laser was actually called an optical maser, but that usage has fallen well out of common usage.) Similar methods have been used to create devices, such as an atomic laser, which emit other types of particles in coherent states. To Lase? There is also a verb form of laser, to lase, which means to produce laser light or to apply laser light to. Also Known As: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, maser, optical maser

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Delivering Education To The Poor Via The Mobile Phone Essay

Delivering Education To The Poor Via The Mobile Phone - Essay Example Current paper focuses on the potential use of mobile phones for educational purposes among poor people. In order to cover all aspects of the issue under examination the research developed for this study has been based on both theory and empirical findings. In this context, this paper has been structured as follows: a) in the Introductory section the theme of the study is briefly presented, b) in the literature review section, the existing theories in regard to learning are presented; the theories and views presented in this section help to understand whether online education could fully cover the educational needs of poor people; c) the next part of the study is the Research question and method where the terms under which empirical studies have been involved in this paper are presented; d) the findings of the empirical studies are presented in another section, the Analysis and Results section; e) in the Discussion and Implications section the practical implications of the use of mobi le phones in education and the potential benefits of such educational approach for poor people are made clear; f) the conclusions developed from the findings of the literature and the empirical research are presented in the Conclusion section of the paper where recommendations are also made for increasing the effectiveness of mobile phones when used for covering the educational needs of poor people. ... ented in the Conclusion section of the paper where recommendations are also made for increasing the effectiveness of mobile phones when used for covering the educational needs of poor people. 2. Literature Review Online learning has been proved as an effective scheme to respond to certain educational needs that cannot be covered otherwise. At the same time, online learning can be used as a complementary educational tool for saving time and cost in the delivery of curriculum (Bach, Haynes and Smith 2007). However, in practice, online learning have resulted to key major problems: a) the lack of safety in regard to the work of each student and b) the creation of inequalities according to the technology used for accessing online learning programs (Bach, Haynes and Smith 2007). Indeed, it seems that there is mechanism for guaranteeing the protection of the work of each student in the context of an online learning program even if the development of technology related to online learning has been impressive (Bach, Haynes and Smith 2007). Moreover, online learning has led to the increase of the gap between rich and poor students: the former are able to use advanced technology for participating in online learning programs, a fact that promotes inequality in education (Illeris 2008). Under these terms, it would be necessary to review how the use of mobile phones as a tool for supporting the educational needs of poor people would be feasible and which measures should be taken for securing the quality of education provided through this mechanism. The performance of individuals in team-working and in handling advanced technology has been often considered as a significant advantage, even higher from these persons’ educational background (Remenvi 2008). In particular, the ability of

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Corporate Social Responsibility and the US Economy Research Paper

Corporate Social Responsibility and the US Economy - Research Paper Example The moral minimum anticipates being part of the customary business practice and the forces restraints on the high-powered managers of companies (Cornelissen, 2004). The biggest environmental challenge that is facing most industries is development of an account on the environmental responsibilities widely but within the moral minimum to motivate most business compliances. Therefore, this becomes the accepted way of increasing profits in an accepted manner. In US, most companies assimilate corporate social responsibilities as their marketing strategies. In this regard, consumers may decide to purchase the products with reasons that they are supporting the social causes. Due to this, there is heightened financial performance aimed at the corporation through huge consumer profits. In addition, numerous companies have tried to establish social responsible corporate images. Through such techniques, consumers are involved either directly or indirectly in supporting the causes. Furthermore, there exists a superior model for sustaining development, which posits that businesses have the moral responsibilities to ensure that the activities are ecologically sustainable. Through this theory, the moral minimum should include ecologically sustainable perspectives. This seeks to reunite the natural ecological laws and the moral limits placed on the business activities (Adams, 2002). Businesses recycle the resources in appropriate rates and later compensate the ecosystem due to the losses that the productive capacity posses on its activity. Therefore, this knowledge on social environment perspectives is vital in the management of corporations. Case studies The Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company... According to the research findings corporations like the Home Depot and the Minnesota Company has the responsibilities and duties to remain more significant in terms of environmental and social responsibilities in enhancing the financial performance. The company makes huge profits in participating and promoting the conservation of the environment. If all the resources involved in production are used and destroyed then the future success of the company is not feasible. Thus, the two companies promote environment and social responsibilities. They are partaking to better the natural environment through recycling some of the products and conserving the natural environment. These two companies have been prospects in preserving the environment basing on the social perspectives to act as recommendation for all our companies. Therefore, the companies should focus on the ways and methods of improving the manufacturing process to reduce all forms of pollution. Companies should also play activ e roles in the society and further sponsoring the communal projects to better the community. Through this, the companies will thrive both financially and advocate for our social well being in the society. The use of available natural resources in the U.S economy has been set in accordance to the satisfaction of the current living standards. Nevertheless, the environmental impacts on the global business have caused increased surveillance of United State corporations.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Students’ fitness and their academic achievement Essay Example for Free

Students’ fitness and their academic achievement Essay Running Head: Discussion Investigations into the relationship between academic achievement and physical fitness have produced mixed results. Weber (1983) correlated fitness, using the Iowa Physical Proficiency Profile (including sit-ups, pull-ups, running), to entrance exam scores and grade point averages for 246 male college students. Fitness level had a significant positive relationship with grade point average (r = . 41), but did not relate to performance scores on entrance exams. Hart and Shay (1994) examined mathematics and verbal SAT scores and the Physical Fitness Index in 60 college women. When the relationships between verbal scores and mathematics scores and fitness index were examined, the r values were . 068 and . 146, respectively, although neither was significant at the . 05 level. A battery of fitness tests (e. g. , flexed arm hang, curl-ups, and step test) were administered to 827 female freshmen and subjects were placed in one of three categories of fitness: high, fair or poor (Arnett, 1988). Arnett (1988) found significant differences in grade point average between the groups, with participants with higher fitness levels having higher GPAs. Using various academic measures and fitness measures on school-aged children, studies have also resulted in inconsistent findings. Clarke and Jarman (1991), examining 217 boys (aged 9, 12 and 15), found that there was a consistent, and for some fitness measures, a significant tendency for the students in the high fitness group to have higher means on both standard achievement tests and grade point average. Current studies have used standardized achievement and fitness tests as measures. A study involving 1,767 students in second, fourth and sixth grades examined the relationship between performance on the Georgia Criterion Referenced Test for Reading, Mathematics and Career Education and performance on a variety of physical fitness tests from the Minnesota Performance Test, the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) Health Related Physical Fitness Tests, and the Texas Physical Fitness-Motor Ability Test (Harris Jones, 1982). For the boys and girls, multiple regression analysis demonstrated a low, but significant, relationship between reading and mathematics ability and the combination of eight motor performance measures examined, five of which were fitness measures. Winn (1993) studied 302 fourth and fifth grade children and examined the relationship between scores on the California Test of Basic Skills (reading, mathematics) and performance on the AAHPERD Presidents Challenge. Using national norms, total fitness and total academic achievement scores were determined. The overall correlation between the total scores was . 213. When each test item was correlated with scores in each of reading, mathematics and language, the correlations ranged from . 043 to . 462, although none of the correlations were significant at the . 05 level. An examination of 7,961 youngsters from 7 to 15 years of age in Australia was conducted by Dwyer, Sallis, Blizzard, Lazarus and Dean (2001). School ratings of scholastic ability were compared with performance on a variety of fitness measures including sit-ups, push-ups, and a 1.6 kilometer run. Across the age groups, there were significant, but weak, correlations (ranging from. 1 to . 27) between fitness (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular force and power) and academic performance. Most recently, the California Department of Education (2002; 2005) reported the results of two studies that examined the relationship between scores on achievement tests and the Fitnessgram. In the first study, performance on the Stanford Achievement Tests and scores on the Fitnessgram for 884,715 students in grades 5, 7, and 9 were investigated. A composite score, ranging from zero to six, was created for physical fitness, in which a student obtained one point for each of the six test items for which the student was determined to be in the healthy zone. In each of the three grades, higher levels of fitness were related to higher academic achievement. The relationship was stronger for math achievement and fitness, especially at higher fitness levels. This study has yet to be published. As a result, no statistical measures are available. Nevertheless, the results were cited by professional sources, such as the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (no date) and the PE Central web site (no date) as evidence that there is a direct relationship between physical fitness levels and academic achievement. In the latter study (California Department of Education, 2005), performance on the California Standards Tests and the Fitnessgram for 1,036,386 students in grades 5, 7 and 9 were compared. Again in this study, students were awarded a composite score, representing the number of fitness test battery items in which they were in the healthy zone. Results were similar to the 2002 study, with higher fitness scores associated with higher scores in English-language arts and mathematics (p . 05). In this study (California Department of Education, 2005), however, only means were reported; thus, no standard deviations were given for the groups compared, nor were effect size measures made to quantify the practical significance of the differences observed between groups. Conclusion In summary, research examining the relationship between academic achievement and physical fitness has produced mixed results. Of these, one study has been published only as a press release in which no statistical analysis was reported and a second study had incomplete statistical information to effectively interpret the results (California Department of Education, 2002; 2005). In the remaining investigations the interpretation of the results focused on whether a statistically significant finding was observed. A number of statistical researchers, however, have emphasized that the correct interpretation of research results requires that not only the statistical significance of the data be considered, but also the practical significance of the findings (Sterne Smith, 2001; Thomas, Salazar Landers, 1991; Vincent, 1999). This is particularly important in studies such as the present one, and the ones discussed above, which typically involve very large sample sizes of hundreds to hundreds of thousands of subjects. Due to the effect of sample size on the calculation of statistical significance, with large sample sizes it is possible to calculate statistical significance on a result that has no practical significance (Vincent, 1999). As evidenced by the history of investigations, the importance of understanding the relationship between physical fitness and academic performance in children and youth is relevant, and increased by recent evidence from studies conducted on animals and elderly humans that increased physical activity results in improved cognitive function (Colcombe et al., 2004; 2004; Rhodes et al. , 2003). References Almond, L. , McGeorge, S. (1998). Physical activity and academic performance. British Journal of Physical Education, 29(2), 8-12. Arnett, C. (1988). Interrelationships between selected physical variables and academic achievement of college women. Research Quarterly, 39, 227-230. Clarke, H. , Jarman, B. O. (1991). Scholastic achievement of boys 9, 12, and 15 years of age as related to various strength and growth measures. Research Quarterly, 32, 155-162. Colcombe, S. J. , Kramer, A. F. , Erickson, K. I. , Scalf, P., McAuley, E. , Cohen, N. J. , et al. (2004). Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 101, 3316-3321 Creswell, J. W. (2002). Educational research. Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Upper Saddle River, N J: Merrill Prentice Hall Dustman, R. E. , Emmerson, R. , Shearer, D. (1994). Physical activity, age and cognitive function. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 2, 143-181. Dwyer, T. , Sallis, J. F. , Blizzard, L. , Lazarus, R. , Dean, K. (2001). Relation of academic performance to physical activity and fitness in children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 13,225-237. Fraenkel, J. R. , Wallen, N. E. (2003). How to design and evaluate research in education (5th ed. ). Boston: McGraw Hill. Harris, D. I. , Jones, M. A. (1982). Reading, math and motor performance. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 53(9), 21-22. Hart, M. E. , Shay, C. T. (1994). Relationship between physical fitness and academic success. Research Quarterly, 35, 443-445 Hopkins, W. G. (2001). New view of statistics: Effect magnitudes. Retrieved July 10, 2004 McAuley, E. , Kramer, A. F. , Colcombe, S. J. (2004). Cardiovascular fitness and neurocognitive function in older adults: A brief review. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 18, 214-220 National Association for Sport and Physical Education. (2002). 2001 Shape of the nation report. Reston, VA: Author. Nutrition and physical activity. Overweight and obesity.. Retrieved July 15, 2004 Ogden, C. L. , Flegal, K. M. , Carroll, M. D. , Johnson, C. L. (2002). Prevalence and trends in overweight among U. S. children and adolescents, 1999-2000. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 17281732. Presidents Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. (1992). Normative data from the 1985 school population fitness survey for use with the presidents challenge youth physical fitness program. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office. Plato, The republic,Book III, 412A-B. Translated by Conford, 1945, pp. 101-102 Rhodes, J. S. , van Praag, H. , Jeffrey, S. , Girard, I. , Mitchell, G. S. , Garland, T. Jr. , et al. (2003). Exercise increases hippocampal neurogenesis to high levels but does not improve spatial learning in mice bred for increased voluntary wheel running. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 10061016. Sterne, J. A. C. , Smith, G. D. (2001). Sifting the evidence whats wrong with significance tests? British Medical Journal, 322, 226-231. Symons, C. W. , Cinelli, B. , James, T. C. , Groff, P. (1997). Bridging student health risks and academic achievement through comprehensive school health programs. Journal of School Health, 76, 220-227. Thomas, J. R. , Salazar, W. , Landers, D. M. (1991). What is missing in p is less than .05? Effect size. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 62(3), 344-348. Vannier, M. , Poindexter, H. B. (1964). Physical activities for college women. Philadephia: W. B. Saunders. Vincent, W. J. (1999). Statistics in kinesiology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Weber, J. R. (1983). Relationship of physical fitness to success in college and to . rsonality. Research Quarterly, 24, 471-474. Winn, K. L. (1993). A study of the relationship between physical fitness levels and the academic achievement of fourth and fifth grade students. Unpublished masters thesis, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Developing the Literate Child

Developing the Literate Child Introduction ‘Early-years educators relate what is being taught to what children  already know. In order to extend each child’s learning they support  and guide children through each new stage of learning. They know  that the abilities and attitudes that young children develop in the  early years are an important part of a life-long journey during which  children will need to acquire all the language skills necessary to  interpret, manipulate, control and organize language for their own  present and future purposes.’ (Browne 1996, vii) The above quote neatly summarises the need to ensure that young children’s language development is fostered in the best possible way by educators. What children learn now can have a life-long impact upon how they interact with the world in future. It is the child’s teacher, who has the capacity to greatly influence how a child acquires and uses language, to assess what the child already knows, and to use this knowledge to foster and guide the child through, ‘each new stage of learning,’ (Browne 1996, vii). It was with this clear intention in mind, with which the following study was undertaken. The aim, to assess one child’s current speaking and listening, reading and writing skills, to analyse any observations carefully, and to use the information gathered as a basis for planning the child’s future learning needs. The child chosen, a female, was aged 5 years and 9 months at the time of the study and does not have any recognised special educati onal needs. She will, henceforth, be referred to as, ‘Child A,’ for the remainder of the report. Reading Analysis Listening to Child A read on a one-to-one basis was extremely informative. She is starting to use some expression in her voice, and is attempting to make the text sound more like natural language, however, she has little sense of phrase boundaries, and consequently, can often sound stilted. She regularly has to decode words on a word-by-word basis, but is not always successful in her attempts, meaning that the language does not flow. There were frequent extended pauses during the reading of each sentence. On a number of occasions Child A was unable to decode a word but had a limited number of alternative strategies available to her, in order to help her to continue reading. The miscue analyses showed that Child A’s average negative miscue rate was 8.06% for the books chosen from her particular reading ‘stage’. It is recommended that when matching a book to a reader the negative miscue rate should lie somewhere between 3% and 8%, with a miscue rate of 10% representing frustration level, (Moon et al. 1994, 116).This evidence may suggest that the text was too difficult for Child A, resulting in a negative effect on her confidence and interest. Graham and Kelly propound that, ‘Surprising insights into children’s reading can emerge in the one-to-one conversations which you have with them,’ (Graham and Kelly 1997, 115). I talked at length with Child A and we discussed her reading habits and attitudes towards books. It quickly became obvious that Child A loves books in many forms. She confided that she often imagines that she is the princess in the stories which are read to her. Child A likes to look at the pictures in books and tell her own stories from these, but feels unable to read the words alone. It became clear that Child A has access to many books at home, and Mum and Dad evidently read a lot. She delighted in recounting her first experience of visiting a library, which occurred recently, and she was given ample time to choose a book to take home. Child A proudly confided that she knew the book by heart as she had read it that often. It was evident that Child A, not only enjoys reading, but also see s herself as a good reader. Observation of Child A during several guided reading sessions with her class teacher, presented a different picture. Child A frequently became easily distracted, and failed to focus on the text which was in front of her. She appeared to be restless and anxious to move off onto different activities. Child A was confident when attempting to read a word she thought she knew, however, when she came across an unfamiliar word she would not attempt to read it. With prompting she would begin to ‘sound’ a word out, but often gave up before completing the word. Again, Child A seems over reliant on picture cues and was attempting to tell the story from the pictures. She remained unfocused throughout each guided reading session and while other children were turning the pages of their books, Child A sat with her book shut. She was unable to participate in the group discussion concerning the book and was unable to relate the main points of the story to the teacher when asked. Child A was also observed during shared whole-class reading sessions. While she did not openly volunteer answers to the questions asked, she did respond once the class teacher asked her a direct question. In consideration of the above evidence, and in conjunction with the level descriptors provided by the National Curriculum (, it is possible to suggest that Child A is working at Level One in terms of her reading: ‘Pupils recognise familiar words in simple texts. They use their  knowledge of letters and sound-symbol relationships in order to  read words and to establish meaning when reading aloud. In these   activities they sometimes require support. They express their   response to poems, stories and non-fiction by identifying aspects   they like.’ ( However, it is clear that Child A meets only part of this level descriptor, as she is not yet using her phonic knowledge to read words, and to use the words to comprehend the story. Implications for Teaching and Learning: Reading It is clear from the evidence given above that Child A is not a confident of fluent reader. She is working in the early stages of National Curriculum level 1, and will need specific support if she is to begin to work in the later stages of the level, and indeed to start to work towards National Curriculum level 2. The problems with Child A’s use of expression and lack of awareness of phrase boundaries, could perhaps be addressed by adults modelling the reading process. Graham and Kelly suggest that this is a viable way of first introducing a book to a child, before they are given the opportunity to read the book for themselves, (Graham and Kelly 1997, 105). This could give Child A the confidence she needs and will expose her to the way books should be read, using lots of expression. It will also aid her awareness of phrase boundaries, particularly if the adult traces the text with their finger as they read and makes exaggerated pauses when full stops or commas are encountered. Child A’s reluctance to join in group and class discussion about books could be a result of a lack of confidence in her own abilities, or perhaps she is unsure of how to respond correctly and does not want to ‘risk,’ getting it wrong. Again, one-one-one reading sessions could be an ideal way to address this problem. Graham and Kelly (1997) suggest that there should be a specific pattern to one-on-one reading sessions with young children, this pattern consists of five separate steps. ‘Warming up the text,’ allows children to look at the book chosen with an adult, handling it and making links with their own experiences, making them feel more comfortable before they begin reading (Graham and Kelly 1997, 105). ‘Reviewing the book,’ is also an important part of the confidence building process, and would allow Child A to give her opinion on the book without fear of failure, (Graham and Kelly 1997, 106). These strategies will hopefully help to b uild Child A’s self confidence and she should then eventually be able to give her opinions in shared and guided reading sessions. The miscue analyses also indicated that the books from Child A’s ‘shelf,’ were perhaps too difficult for her, resulting in boredom and frustration, this could also have been the case during the guided reading sessions. Child A should be given books from a ‘lower shelf,’ to read in order to build up her self confidence. In addition to this, being placed with children of a similar, or slightly lower, ability for guided reading sessions could also have a positive impact. Speaking and Listening Analysis During whole-class, teacher-led activities Child A did not speak unless she was asked a direct question by the class teacher. On such occasions, Child A would sometimes respond accurately, at other times she would not respond at all. When the children were asked to respond to questions by raising their hands, Child A would not put up her hand. During such teaching sessions, Child A was often observed to be very restless, although she was keen to sit right at the front. The children were regularly asked to work with ‘talking partners,’ during the direct teaching, it was observed that Child A never responded to her partner in such situations, simply refusing to speak. During independent activities, Child A was observed to ignore other children on her table. Often her peers attempted to draw her into their activity or conversation, however, she did not respond to them in anyway, and indeed seemed to ignore them. Child A was also observed during ‘free-play,’ situations. Generally Child A would remain on her self-chosen task and did not initiate conversation with her peers. The exception to this being conflict situations, where Child A was extremely vocal in expressing her unhappiness to another child. When surrounded by other children, Child A still did not join in with their chatter. During free-play Child A would occasionally respond to a direct question from an adult observer, but at other times would attempt to ignore them. Occasionally Child A would address a direct comment to an adult observer, in relation to her self-generated task, but did not then become engaged in conversation. Play-times seemed to present a different view of Child A, in terms of her speaking and listening ability. She was observed on several occasions playing, with another girl from her class, a variety of different clapping and singing games. The two girls demonstrated different games to each other, and were evidently listening and responding to each other. ‘Pupils talk about matters of immediate interest. They listen to others  and usually respond appropriately. They convey simple meanings to  a range of listeners, speaking audibly, and begin to extend their ideas  or accounts by providing some detail.’ ( This level descriptor indicates that, although Child A only meets part of the criteria for National Curriculum level 1, she is working at the lower end of this level. The observations made in the playground show that Child A is able, when the opportunity presents itself, to, ‘talk about matters of immediate interest,’ ( Implications for Teaching and Learning: Speaking and Listening The evidence collected suggests that although Child A is confident when speaking to her peers at playtimes, she is not comfortable during class or group situations on and often prefers to remain silent. It is important to develop her ability to, ‘listen to others,’ and to, ‘respond appropriately,’ if Child A is to work towards National Curriculum level 2 for speaking and listening ( ). One of the key learning objectives for speaking and listening for children in Year One is, ‘to ask and answer questions, make relevant contributions, offer suggestions and take turns,’ (DFES 2003a, 24). The document Speaking, Listening, Learning: working with children in Key Stages 1 and 2 (DFES 2003a), offers some good suggestions for teaching towards this learning objective, and recommends a great deal of paired work, and teacher modelling of how to ask and answer questions. If Child A was able to observe adults modelling paired work, or some of her peers engaged in discussion work, she may start to feel sufficiently confident enough to join in herself. An additional strategy to help Child A during paired work, might be to try her with a variety of different partners to see if she responds better to a certain child. ‘All areas of the curriculum offer distinct opportunities for developing children’s speaking and listening,’ (DFES 2003b, 11) and consequently it may be possible to engage Child B more fully in speaking and listening activities when linked to a subject she enjoys. The use of paired discussion, could be better suited to a science lesson, for example, rather than confining such discussions to English lessons. Writing Analysis Several conversations with Child A led to the conclusion that she does perceive herself as a good writer. She enjoys writing for a purpose, she explained that she regularly writes lists and stories at home, giving them to her parents to read. It is clear from examining the writing samples, that while Child A is confidently identifying the initial and final phonemes in words, and writing these down, she appears to be having more difficulty with medial phonemes, as many of these are missing from the words she has written down. For example in Appendix III, the writing clearly shows that Child A has attempted to write the word, ‘wonderful,’ however she has clearly identified the sounds at the beginning and ends of the word, but the middle sounds have not been clearly audible to her, resulting in the word, ‘wunful.’ The three samples of Child A’s writing which were examined (see Appendices I, II and III), indicate that she is making phonetically plausible attempts at words as the writing can be clearly read without the aid of the child in most places. Child A does show an awareness of how to use full stops, although these are not consistently in the correct places. She does not yet seem aware that it is necessary to leave a clear space in between her words, and only does so in a couple of places. The evidence listed above, in conjunction with the writing samples contained within Appendices I, II, and III, indicate that Child A is working at National Curriculum level 1: ‘Pupils’ writing communicates meaning through simple words and  phrases. In their reading or their writing, pupils begin to show  awareness of how full stops are used. Letters are usually clearly  shaped and correctly oriented. ( ) It is clear from the above level descriptor, that although Child A is working at National Curriculum level 1, she does not meet all of the listed criteria and, therefore, should not be assessed for level 2. Implications for Teaching and Learning: Writing The evidence given supports the suggestion that Child A is progressing through National Curriculum level 1 and into level 2. There are several things that could be done to support this transition. It could be said that her main development point is to improve her spelling and to start to recognise medial sounds in words. Child A also needs to start leaving finger spaces in between words and to start using full stops correctly. The publication, Progression in Phonics: materials for whole class teaching, (DFES 1999) provides lots of suggestions for improving Child A’s ability to hear medial sounds. For example, the game, ‘Croaker,’ develops the children’s ability to hear and identify phonemes in a specified part of the word, using a puppet, (DFES 1999, 26). Such a game could improve Child A’s ability to hear and identify medial phonemes with the aim of improving her spelling. Reid suggests that shared and modelled writing are effective ways of supporting young children’s writing development, (Reid in Bentley and Burman et al. 1999, 103-104). This could be a good way of improving Child A’s use of finger spaces and full stops. If the teacher models the correct use of full stops and finger spaces, and also makes lots of deliberate mistakes which the children can help to correct, Child A will begin to understand how to use full stops and finger spaces effectively in her own writing. Conclusion In conclusion, the evidence presented above indicates that Child A is working at National Curriculum level 1 for her reading, writing and speaking and listening skills. It has already been suggested that effective teachers use what children already know as a basis for developing their language skills and facilitating their progression. The evidence collected has been carefully analysed with this aim in mind, and areas for the development of Child A’s literacy skills have been identified. Adult modelling of the reading and writing process should play a key part in this development, if Child A is to make good progress towards National Curriculum level 2. Peer modelling could also play an important role, and could also help to foster Child A’s self confidence. It is important that all these suggestions are linked to other areas of the curriculum in order to engage and interest Child A, although this should also be of paramount importance when teaching all children. If all these suggestions are put into action, Child A should start to make sound progress and will, in addition, be playing an important part in this progression herself. Bibliography Browne, Ann (1996) Developing Language and Literacy 3-8. London: Paul Chapman Publishing Limited. DFES (1999) Progression In Phonics: Materials for Whole-Class Teaching (The National Literacy Strategy) London: Department for Education and Employment DFES (2003a) Speaking, Listening, Learning: working with children in Key Stages 1 and 2: Teaching objectives and classroom activities. London: Department for Education and Employment DFES (2003b) Speaking, Listening, Learning: working with children in Key Stages 1 and 2: Handbook. London: Department for Education and Employment Graham, Judith and Kelly, Alison (1997) Reading Under Control: Teaching Reading in the Primary School. London: David Fulton Publishers Ltd. Moon, Cliff and Bourne, Jill (1994) The Open University Resource Pack: Learning to Teach Reading. Milton Keynes: The Open University. Reid, Dee Writing at Key Stage 1 in Bentley, Diana, Burman, Christine, Chamberlin, Rosemary et al. The Really Practical Guide to Primary English ( 1999) London: Stanley Thorne Publishers Ltd.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967

The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 is the primary federal statute that prohibits employers from discriminating against employees in terms, privileges and conditions of employment on the basis of age. The law also applies to employment agencies and labor organizations. To be covered by the ADEA, an individual must be 40 years old or older. There is no cap on an employee's age to be covered by the ADEA. What law requires/prohibits Under the ADEA, it is unlawful to discriminate against a person because of his/her age with respect to any term, condition, or privilege of employment, including hiring, firing, promotion, layoff, compensation, benefits, job assignments, and training. It is also unlawful to retaliate against an individual for opposing employment practices that discriminate based on age or for filing an age discrimination charge, testifying, or participating in any way in an investigation, proceeding, or litigation under the ADEA. Who is covered The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA) protects individuals who are 40 years of age or older from employment discrimination based on age. The ADEA’s protections apply to both employees and job applicants. The ADEA applies to employers with 20 or more employees, including state and local governments. It also applies to employment agencies and labor organizations, as well as to the federal government. ADEA protections include: * Apprenticeship Programs  * Job Notices and Advertisements * Pre-Employment Inquiries * Benefits * Waivers of ADEA Rights Reporting/recordkeeping requirements Employers must keep all payroll records for three years. Employers must also keep on file any employee benefit plan (such as pension and insurance plans) and any written seniority or merit system for the full period the plan or system is in effect and for at least one year after its termination How does one make a complaint if they feel the law has been violated? An individual must pre-file a charge with the EEOC within 180 days after the alleged unlawful practice occurred or within 300 days if a state age discrimination law (including remedies) exits.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

American Indians Two Spirits

The role of the American Indians (Native Americans) in the United States cannot be underestimated. In fact, this people are the part of a cultural legacy of the United States. Due to the multiple tribes inhabiting America from East to West Americans loaned many of the common names and other terms going directly from the language of Native Americans. It concerns everything about the names of multiple states, towns, cities, etc. However, this research has its aim to disclose the nature of Native Americans in terms of gender roles and gender issues scoped out for today.In such an analysis one should pay special attention to some similarities or differences (natch! ) about two-spirit people among Native Americans. Moreover, it is not for nothing that the cultural as well as mythological approaches are taken to help an observer get the right idea of specificities going around these unique people, namely American Indians.First of all, it is possible to suggest that Indians living in the No rth America and throughout the United States, in particular, keep their culture in safety from the ominous (as they say) impacts of the Western culture.Hence, some similar terms and states of people have another coloring among Natives than it is among Westerners. Thus, one of the aspects in the research paper covers the cultural aspects of these spiritually well-treated people. Next, the question will be about the concept of two-spirit people (two-spirits) coming out to be among Native Americans. Finally, the discussion will touch upon some justifications of suchlike characterization of Native Americans. This will presuppose using features of compare/contrast analysis.As a finishing stroke, an observer should be ready to perceive the reality of two-spirit people, as it falls into traditional concept of gender, sex, sexuality, and spirituality among Native Americans (Jacobs, Thomas, & Lang, 1997).Nonetheless, the play is worth candles, as they say. Thus, the value of the research is in its sociological as well as anthropological investigation of tribal life of Native Americans and some peculiarities of berdache people (meaning two-spirits). Evaluation First of all, it is necessary to draw one’s attention to the mythology of Native Americans.They are quite spiritual in their beliefs and in traditions as well. Everything about their beliefs in divinity starts from glorifying spirits incorporated in well-known elements of nature or natural features (Leeming & Page, 2000).Woodlands and Plains are the most appreciated by Natives, as the place for the basic spiritual powers (Manitou and wakan) which are personified in these widespread areas inhabited by American Indians (Leeming & Page, 2000). Hence, the cultural background of Native Americans starts with the mythology and faith they share for centuries.Such a multifaceted reality encounters some critical points while Western civilizations are trying to critique beliefs of Natives, as primitive and no longer p ossible in a fast-growing world. Nevertheless, mythology is inseparable out of what Natives secure about their own attitudes toward some social events or people being different than the rest of the tribal community. This characterization is for a reason, since gender roles and the concept of sexuality are thought of in a different way by American Indians.It is a matter of their identity and dignity. Owing to keeping their culture(s) in safety, Native Americans secure social equilibrium on the spot. Thus, it is worth mentioning that features of any kind are open for discussion in a tribe.Some of them being a taboo for Western people are beyond reproach among Natives. In fact, the question is about Native American berdaches, as the two-spirit people. As it was mentioned before, American Indians kept their precious beliefs out of Western implications.As a matter of fact, Indians are likely to omit the notion of â€Å"berdache† by changing it to another concept of â€Å"two-spir it† (Jacobs, Thomas, & Lang, 1997). This is because the term itself originates from the nineteenth century when it defined â€Å"slaveboys,† â€Å"catamites,† or â€Å"inverts.†Hence, Natives, as a freewill community of people in the United States, prove their identity through the notions of spirituality and belonging to a tribe. This is the most valued features associated with these people. American Indians are non-violent by nature. It is well reported in the legends going along with tribes throughout the continent.Before getting the idea of the Great Spirit, two people were proposed to choose the weapon: the first one chose a gun and became a white man while the second one chose a bow and an arrow and became an Indian (Leeming & Page, 2000).In this mythic inscription American Indians tried to illuminate that spirits saved them from â€Å"extinction,† so to speak, by letting to choose afterwards. Otherwise, they would become as a Whiteman, cruel a nd apt at violence. This is the gist of why American Indians are likely to ignore what the Western civilization has proposed them.It is so even in social relationships, of course. Indians are not willing to use the same terms as whites use. They are scrupulous at finding a better explanation of peoples’ lives. Notwithstanding some unique states of peoples’ souls and spirits in a tribe, Indians follow the prescriptions of their predecessors in judging all of their identity. It is about time to give some new implications on the term of two-spirit people. In fact, these are those being of one gender physically, but feeling strongly the presence of another gender at the same time.This simple definition provides a scope of reasoning over the nature of indigenous people in the United States. Gender was always viewed by Native Americans as having a spiritual background. The physical sphere for the spirit is a secondary thing to interpret Indians’ justification of why t hey think of gender relationships differently. By contrast, indigenous people of America use their own characterization of gender. Brown (1997) identifies six basic gender styles among Native Americans, i. e. men and women, not-men and not-women, gays and lesbians.This characterization gives substantial grounds to suppose American Indians more varied and free-to-judge about gender analysis and its significance. Western culture views these particularities senseless reducing them to four or even two elements. It is due to the influence of morale and historical background outlining bigotries as of berdaches. It is important that American Indians view a man and a woman as two beginnings or halves to give further life to a tribe. These incorporations are done to prescribe a divine nature of gender in its spiritual patterning.All in all, indigenous people are apt at coming up with the alternative gender style in their society. Despite Western people, Indians, therefore, reduce an extent o f tribal conflicts due to a right understanding of different genders in people. For instance, in Santee Dakota and Lakota tribes, gender styles are in most points associated with particular cultural norms as for berdaches and fetishism as a term which unnecessarily linked to two-spirit people (Brown, 1997). These particularities gave American Indians more freedom to choose their social niche within a tribal society.Nevertheless, one should see a sociological prerequisite for diminishing a degree of controversial, frequently conflict, situations. Native American gays and lesbians is another aspect of the discussion. These people feel no prejudice or blame because of their gender style. In fact, two-spirit people are concerned with some magical power being with them, as healers or even as associates to witchcraft (Jacobs, Thomas, & Lang, 1997). In this respect American Indian people do not feel like hating two-spirit people. One should notice a distinct use of the word â€Å"spirit.à ¢â‚¬ This is where a respectful attitude toward Native American berdaches starts. What is more, it is largely considered that indigenous people in the United States are unique for their own views on life and manners of social existence.This goes along with the anthropological features of two-gendered spirits of some people living in a tribe. As a matter of fact, in the contemporary discourse gays and lesbians among Native Americans are really different from those of other ethnical belongings (Western people, in particular) (Brown, 1997).Century-long history of American Indians and their unbreakable strong traditions in fulfilling their destinies does not give them a chance to drop a hint of doubt concerning their spirituality. It is remarkable that two-spirit people are also endured with force.This one is appreciated among tribal society to bear a healing power and a so-called ‘mascot’ for the rest of the society. Thus, these people are largely considered to be involve d into spiritual connections with the Great Spirit as well as with Manitou and wakan.Once again, it is significant to admit that the main difference of shaping gender identities between Native Americans and Western people is in their cultures. Culture is a multilevel system bearing the identity of a community or even society of individuals.The anthropological issue is that cultural belonging exemplifies itself in gender attitudes (Wood, 2008). As was mentioned before, two-spirit people are a particular calque for gays and lesbians in the rest of the world. However, this notion is incomplete, as it bears no connection to how American Indians treat it.Thereupon, one should be careful and accurate in explaining the fact that two-spirit people are not similar to gays and lesbians in a simple conception. Two-spirit people are admired among Native Americans (Wood, 2008).Intersexuality means something special for American Indians. It is an aspect of a sacred features in a man incorporated with spirits being of different genders. Therefore, people should not treat it wrong that two-spirit people of Native Americans have nothing to do with something else but gay or lesbian attitudes and way of life.The features of acceptance and belonging for two-spirit people today are critical, as there is a collision of two cultural backgrounds, namely Native American and traditional gay cultures (Gilley, 2006).Two-spirit American Indians are so by their initial realization of their place among people and in terms of spiritual features corresponding to their Indian identity. It is hard to talk on this topic due to the increase of current gay culture dampening genuinely sacred understanding of two-spirit implementation among Indians.Recent studies on being a two-spirit individual within Native American communities show that it is impossible for indigenous people to impose surgery for making the prevailing feeling as of gender physically apparent (Gilley, 2006).This is a silly thing f or those who knew about two-spirit people long before the scientific and technological progress and the development of medicine and plastic surgery. It is a state of spirit, a state of soul, thus, a state of mind for Native Americans.Nonetheless, it is not a big secret that in contemporary tribal rites and priorities two-spirit people encounter some problems with the overall acceptance and further belonging to American Indian society (Wood, 2008). Historically, the cultural tradition of two-spirit people among different tribes has its specific definitions. Lev (2004) provides a set of different notions for two-spirit people in different tribes: â€Å"winkte (Lakota), nadleehi (Navaho), bote (Crow), lhamana (Zuni), and haxu’xan (Arapaho) for males, and hwame (Mojave) for females† (59).Dual-gender states are explained differently but all of them derived from the precious for Indians cultural framework and strong connection to their indigenous beliefs in spirituality of a ny individual within Native American society. The hegemonic Western culture is a great impediment for two-spirit people among Native Americans. The question is that these people cannot but be nearby the trends and features of traditional gay and lesbian culture. Thus, dualism of genders seems to be on the edge of having no genuine spiritual coloring for Indians.In this respect it is interesting that Native American berdaches are not traditionally concerned with homosexuality in terms of gender relationships, but just physically (Jacobs, Thomas, & Lang, 1997). This evaluation comes out to be a critical and quite contradicting as explained on the part of Native Americans. The idea is that everyone having an intercourse with two-spirit people is never considered to be a gay or a lesbian: If you are a man and you have sexual relationship with a ‘berdache,’ you’re not having sex with another man. You’re having sex with a ‘berdache.’And if youâ€⠄¢re a woman who has sex with a ‘berdache,’ you’re not having sex with a woman, you’re having sex with a ‘berdache. ’ So the partners of the ‘berdache’ technically are never homosexual because they’re not having sex with their same gender† (Jacobs, Thomas, & Lang, 1997, p. 104-105) This truth (apparently, an assumption) by Native Americans illuminates a sticking point for Western mentality and rationale of what being a gay or a lesbian means at large. Cultural prospects are above all for indigenous people in the North America.In fact, there is a feature of admiration in evidence. Many anthropologists refer Native Americans in their understanding of two-spirit people to some Asian cultures which have full-fledged settings of beliefs similar to duality of genders among American Indians. As might be considered, these implications are for a reason. They drop a light on the century-long communication within Indian peoples. In turn it was reflected on every feature of social life and further adaptation for living with â€Å"white† neighbors. This is why gender relationships are widely anticipated nowadays.To say more, American Indians are likely to personify deities in terms of their duality and reference to both genders. Two personifications of gender types from the spiritual point of view are eagle for a male part and coyote for a female part (Leeming & Page, 2000). Embodiment of two genders associated with nature and animals, particularly, brings a new understanding of homosexuality in. It has many things to do with neutrality and supremacy when individuals bear different feelings and preferences in life as for individuals of the same gender.It is almost impossible to speak about a two-spirit man or woman, as a bearer of some particular gender type. Here comes a dilemma in judging American Indians. They are never considered to be of the same values as pursuant to European people.Not-men and not-women are likely to be discovered out of men and women but as those having some magic power at their disposal (Brown, 1997). Among six gender styles, one should be attentive and quite rational not to mix not-men and not-women with gays and lesbians. This is why there is another incorporation of gender belonging as constituted by Native Americans.At a glance, it is hard to believe it, but it needs a proper look at how socialization takes place among American Indians. Hence, it is impossible to identify two-spirit people similar to current gays and lesbians.This would be a particular anthropological and sociological mistake. Different researches proved it to be right and full of rationality if only looking at the historical, cultural, and religious background of indigenous peoples living in America. Looking at what has been discussed previously, one can make up his/her mind about how to explain two-spirit people among Native Americans.It is apparent that the main difference betwee n two-spirits and gays with lesbians is in the spiritual and cultural background. It is a niche which provides a place for further dimensions in gender styles and gender treatment among American Indians. In the milieu of â€Å"Native American gender diversity† most of the scholars refer all two-spirits to bearing more male features than female ones (Gilley, 2006). This is why, since the colonial era until present it is documented that both not-men and not-women are basically characterized through features of masculinity.This assumption provides a scope of differences to consider two-spirit people not the same as traditionally understood homosexual minorities, as long as the European gay culture presupposes men to be like women in manners and other features and women to be more like women, as they can understand each other better than men could. This makes a constraint between two types of cultural and social ways of perceiving the reality. Westerners and Native Americans deli neate initially different beliefs which are inseparable from gender identities and attitudes toward them.The thing is that homosexuality among Westerners is in most points a reflection of Ancient Greek attitudes toward gender relationships. This idea got through different philosophical and social theories and explanations leading toward present identification of gay culture, as something transcendent and magnificent. Conversely, the evaluation of two-spirit homosexual identity among Native Americans begins on the moment when Indians came to the American continent long before the Europeans discovered it.Thus, it is rational to state two-spirit tradition of American Indians, as purely inscribed into the cultural background of these peoples. Hence, it has no Western or some other alloys of cultural intrusions, as Indians were isolated for many years continentally and by sea. This is why both cultures do not fit in what they mean for people belonging to them. A civilized life and seemin gly old-fashioned traits in traditions are like a medal with two different edges. Strict and quite elaborated norms in tribes of American Indians did not exclude homosexuality.This provides an assumption that transgender versatility should be taken into consideration in every culture in the world. As concerned with Native Americans, their predominantly genuine coloring in provision of the same sex relationships among some few people in a community are functionally defined. In this respect Lev (2004) identifies three core-features among two-spirit people within Native Americans, namely: â€Å"(1) a cross-role specialization in social, productive, and domestic roles; (2) spiritual sanction and associated powers; and (3) gender variation often denoted by cross dressing behavior† (60).This classification of the basic functions as of two-spirit people assumes implication of the key-features hierarchy. Just as they are listed above, these features should be understood by means of t he ascending scale.Two-spirit people, as described in the several tribes in the United States since the colonial time, were obliged to commit with both male and female social worlds (Gilley, 2006). It corresponds to the fact that social taboos were not possible for those who could not give birth to a child. Moreover, it becomes so until now.Two-spirit people are no longer appropriate to be claimed as having something of a man or of a woman. These people shared labor of both gender types inside Native Americans. This is why in Zuni, Cherokee, and other tribes two-spirit people were respectful for being good craftsmen or highly apt at social work within the tribal community.In fact, men could do weaving and potting alongside with hunting big game and building wigwams (Gilley, 2006). Two-spirit men were not separated from the male part of the community, but rather appreciated and adored. This constituted the same for two-spirit women.Notwithstanding, two-spirit people are widely said t o be another, third, type of gender relationships among Native Americans. This statement gives enough space to consider two-spirits economically and socially profitable for their communities.However, it is possible for those representatives of such gender type who position themselves as Jacks-of-all-trades. Nevertheless, experts are apt at characterizing the two-spirits as rather valuable individuals who are even believed to predict different events and to speak directly with spirits. This cannot but suppress ardency of the rest of a tribe.However, there were evidences when two-spirit people were widely suspected in witchcraft and bad will of spirits (Jacobs, Thomas, & Lang, 1997). Not for nothing, it was something like hatred to witches in a medieval Europe. Wood (2008) is inclined in her studies to state that two-spirit people of indigenous tribes of America are the result of the prior matrilineal system established among American Indians. In this respect everything, social, prope rty, or inherited things, were for women, not for men. Perhaps, this was a real pivot around which a symbiosis of two genders appeared and was applied to be another kind of gender relationships.To date, it is taken for granted that two-spirit people embody mostly cultural features and consequences in the evolution of Native Americans’ social life and development. Some experts still show perseverance in identifying two-spirit people through their spiritual estimation. However, the historical and ethno-sociological points of view give grounds to make sure Native American two-spirit people emerged as a result of some social privileges and appropriate changes in the social system and in stratification of individuals inhabiting a definite tribe.Different biases are concerned with some assumptions on the divine and culturally original personification of two-spirit people. This provides further discussion or debate, so to speak, in order to evaluate the social and cultural insights into the essence of what people call Native Americans.Contemporary talks on the theme of two-spirit people among indigenous tribes and peoples living in America including Inuit and Siberian Chukchi are all about transgendered people (being so few within communities) who are concerned women if they are two-spirit men and vice versa (Jacobs, Thomas, & Lang, 1997).This is in evidence until now, and no Western intruder can explain indigenous people the gist of such doing or, perhaps, its amoral side. Moreover, culture is a strong and quite dynamic unity of states and relationships between individuals of the same cultural terrain. This is why there is plenty to talk about social factors impacting cultural growth or decline. Now, it is vital to distinguish between the main dimensions to explain the nature of two-spirit people.It was aforementioned that this is a social and physical mixture of feelings inside an individual grounded on the cultural and the religious features. Lev (2004) giv es a holistic idea on how an observer should think of two-spirit people taking into consideration everything highlighted earlier, namely: â€Å"Though physically Two-Spirit people were not commonly known to be hermaphroditic or intersexed, they are considered to have the social characteristics of both men and women and – consistent with the Indian worldview – they are thought to possess the visions of both sexes† (60).This is, perhaps, the most appropriate in terms of the social discourse. The main obstacle as well as means to survive for two-spirit people is that they should adapt to two social systems with different settings of values and morale, i. e. American and American Indian (Brown, 1997). Getting through the diversity of likes and dislikes in both systems, these people managed to save their culture despite their gender inappropriateness with traditionally marked borders.This is the gist of what makes indigenous people living in the United States so scru pulous and up-and-coming in social or everyday activities. Another applicable feature of two-spirit people is that they do not separate themselves out of the society and their own communities (Jacobs, Thomas, & Lang, 1997). Traditional Western culture presupposes that gays and lesbians should gather together in special places during some thematic parties and on love parades, in particular.Western gays and lesbians are more likely to isolate their community out of the heterosexual majority. Obviously, some features corresponding to morale and political situation in a country have caused such behaviors. On the other side, isolation is a kind of pride suchlike people manifest to the rest of the society. By contrast, two-spirit people never neglect their direct participation in social services and things to be done at the moment. They feel their responsibility to be nearby the majority and help as they can.This is why two-spirit people are full-fledged individuals among the heterosexual peers. Conclusion/recommendations Based on the investigation and analysis done in this research paper, it is clear now that indigenous people have a set of peculiarities about those individuals who mate with the same sex partners. One should not mix it with the traditionally implemented notions of gays and lesbians. Two-spirit people are true members of their tribal communities and of the American Indian society on the whole.It is said that dual-gendered people among Native Americans are the representatives of the third gender which presupposes both male and female views incorporated with suchlike individuals. Historically, the anthropological analysis proves direct sociological links within which the formation or emergence of two-spirit people began. Even though, the study bears an analytical and descriptive evaluation of two-spirit people among Native Americans, it provides a framework for further recommendations.First of all, the study serves as a direct stimulus for would-be so ciologists and anthropologists. Thus, it is vital that practitioners in these fields take a look at the overall analysis of gender issues among indigenous peoples of America. It would be a great precursor for further deeper insights in the subject matter. However, the research would be incomplete if observers or young scholars found out more up-to-date sources on the problem itself and its place in social affairs maintained and developed throughout the American society.Hence, the overall representation of the research paper covers exhaustive information on two-spirit peoples among American Indians. Its value and its significance for sociology cannot be underestimated for further implications in the Native American studies at schools and in colleges.ReferenceBrown, L. B. (1997). Two spirit people: American Indian, lesbian women and gay men. New York, NY: Routledge.Gilley, B. J. (2006). Becoming two-spirit: gay identity and social acceptance in Indian country. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Jacobs, S. -E. , Thomas, W. , & Lang, S. (1997). Two-spirit people: Native American gender identity, sexuality, and spirituality. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.Leeming, D. A. , & Page, J. (2000). The Mythology of Native North America. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.Lev, A. I. (2004). Transgender emergence: therapeutic guidelines for working with gender-variant people and their families. New York, NY: Routledge.Wood, J. T. (2008). Gendered lives: communication, gender, and culture. Stanford, CT: Cengage Learning.

Friday, November 8, 2019

S Orbital Atomic Structure

S Orbital Atomic Structure At any given moment, an electron can be found at any distance from the nucleus and in any direction according to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The s orbital is a spherically-shaped region describing where an electron can be found, within a certain degree of probability. The shape of the orbital depends on the quantum numbers associated with an energy state. All s orbitals have l m 0, but the value of n can vary. S Orbital Versus P Orbital While orbital numbers (e.g., n 1, 2, 3) indicate the energy level of an electron, the letters (s, p, d, f) describe the orbital shape. The s orbital is a sphere around the atomic nucleus. Within the sphere there are shells in which an electron is more likely to be found at any given time. The smallest sphere is 1s. The 2s orbital is larger than 1s; the 3s orbital is larger than 2s. The p orbital has a dumbell shape and is oriented in a particular direction. At any one energy level, there are three equivalent p orbitals that point at right angles to each other (px, py, pz). As with the s orbital, the p orbital describes a region in space around the nucleus in which an electron may be found with the highest probability.