Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Sears And Roebuck Company Business Marketing Term Paper Sears and Roebuck Company For this paper I will be looking at an old established company, that has re-addressed its target market. To increase penetration in the market and expand in new markets, Sears has refocused its market concept. In the past Sears was where your grandparents shopped for quality product. As they sat back and enjoyed the comfort of their brand name and reaped the benefits, other companies sliced away at the market with new concepts in advertising until about five years ago when Sears woke up to a lagging profit margin. Sears began a recovery to regain market shares lost through complacency. To do this they gathered their staff and commenced to focus on new innovative techniques to cater to the needs of their consumers. First they looked at the production which was well established but could be streamlined. Some items could be eliminated or replaced by other brand name products to give the consumer a broader choice of items. For example they sold the Advantis computer branch to IBM when the projected competition would limit revenues in this area. They also negotiated lucrative contracts with brand name companies for the exclusive retailing rights for their product, an example of this is the Nordic Track home fitness equipment in January of this year. They targeted school age children with the new styles, which they refer to as the ?Relaxed Uniformity? which increased sales in July of 1998. This helped bring in the younger and health conscious consumers who did not feel that the Sears brand name was right for them. This stream lining effort would include shutting down some of the lagging catalog sales offices. This allowed them to establish more competitive prices in the market and better returns for their shareholders. This led to an increase in domestic revenues by 4.2 percent in 1998. The next areas they looked at were the location of their stores and the placement of the products in their stores. Some of the older stores which did not have a profit margin that warranted the expense of their upkeep where eliminated to cut overhead expenses. In addition, using trend analysis focusing on consumer habits, they took a hard look at the layout of the stores to see if they could improve sales through a better display or more efficient floor plans. Sears decided to set up displays, which bring the consumer walking by into the store and the product that has the return buyer's interest in the back of store. With this in mind they revamped the floor plans and placed the items they knew the patron would search out to the back of the stores which forced the customer to pass by other product they did not realize was stocked by Sears. The placement of other products, which had lagged in the past, in high traffic areas, increased the sales of those items. Last but not least, once Sears had the company market strategy drawn out; they needed to inform the public of the changes they had made and figure out how they could meet the consumers needs. Sears re-launched its successful Softer Side of Sears advertising campaign that helped the company's turnaround by highlighting its renewed focus on women's apparel. The new version of the Softer Side campaign, which included print and broadcast ads, invited customers to Take Another Look at the fashions available at Sears. The Softer Side of Sears? campaign achieves the key marketing objectives. It changes customers' perception of Sears, drives traffic into the stores, and demonstrates Sears' commitment to offering customers stylish and relevant women's apparel, said Arthur C. Martinez, chairman and chief executive officer of Sears. Now the challenge is to build greater loyalty with our customer and reinforce Sears position as a destination place for apparel that fits her lifestyle. Reinforcing Sears' commitment to serving its primary customer, a woman age 25 to 54 with a moderate household income, family and home. This campaign builds upon and personalizes Sears' invitation to Come See the Softer Side of Sears by illustrating that Sears has more than fashionable apparel; it has the right apparel for her. The original Softer Side campaign, Developed by Young & Rubicam
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Scientific Definition of a Laser A laser is a device which is built on the principles of quantum mechanics to create a beam of light where all of the photons are in a coherent state - usually with the same frequency and phase. (Most light sources emit incoherent light, where the phase varies randomly.) Among the other effects, this means that the light from a laser is often tightly focused and does not diverge much, resulting in the traditional laser beam. How a Laser Works In simplest terms, a laser uses light to stimulate the electrons in a gain medium into an excited state (called optical pumping). When the electrons collapse into the lower-energy unexcited state, they emit photons. These photons pass between two mirrors, so there are more and more photons exciting the gain medium, amplifying the intensity of the beam. A narrow hole in one of the mirrors allows a small amount of the light to escape (i.e. the laser beam itself). Who Developed the Laser This process is based on work by Albert Einstein in 1917 and many others. Physicists Charles H. Townes, Nicolay Basov, and Aleksandr Prokhorov received the 1964 Nobel Prize in Physics for their development of the earliest laser prototypes. Alfred Kastler received the 1966 Nobel Prize in Physics for his 1950 description of optical pumping. On May 16, 1960, Theodore Maiman demonstrated the first working laser. Other Types of Laser The light of a laser does not need to be in the visible spectrum but can be any sort of electromagnetic radiation. A maser, for example, is a type of laser that emits microwave radiation instead of visible light. (The maser was actually developed before the more general laser. For a while, the visible laser was actually called an optical maser, but that usage has fallen well out of common usage.) Similar methods have been used to create devices, such as an atomic laser, which emit other types of particles in coherent states. To Lase? There is also a verb form of laser, to lase, which means to produce laser light or to apply laser light to. Also Known As: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, maser, optical maser
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Delivering Education To The Poor Via The Mobile Phone - Essay Example Current paper focuses on the potential use of mobile phones for educational purposes among poor people. In order to cover all aspects of the issue under examination the research developed for this study has been based on both theory and empirical findings. In this context, this paper has been structured as follows: a) in the Introductory section the theme of the study is briefly presented, b) in the literature review section, the existing theories in regard to learning are presented; the theories and views presented in this section help to understand whether online education could fully cover the educational needs of poor people; c) the next part of the study is the Research question and method where the terms under which empirical studies have been involved in this paper are presented; d) the findings of the empirical studies are presented in another section, the Analysis and Results section; e) in the Discussion and Implications section the practical implications of the use of mobi le phones in education and the potential benefits of such educational approach for poor people are made clear; f) the conclusions developed from the findings of the literature and the empirical research are presented in the Conclusion section of the paper where recommendations are also made for increasing the effectiveness of mobile phones when used for covering the educational needs of poor people. ... ented in the Conclusion section of the paper where recommendations are also made for increasing the effectiveness of mobile phones when used for covering the educational needs of poor people. 2. Literature Review Online learning has been proved as an effective scheme to respond to certain educational needs that cannot be covered otherwise. At the same time, online learning can be used as a complementary educational tool for saving time and cost in the delivery of curriculum (Bach, Haynes and Smith 2007). However, in practice, online learning have resulted to key major problems: a) the lack of safety in regard to the work of each student and b) the creation of inequalities according to the technology used for accessing online learning programs (Bach, Haynes and Smith 2007). Indeed, it seems that there is mechanism for guaranteeing the protection of the work of each student in the context of an online learning program even if the development of technology related to online learning has been impressive (Bach, Haynes and Smith 2007). Moreover, online learning has led to the increase of the gap between rich and poor students: the former are able to use advanced technology for participating in online learning programs, a fact that promotes inequality in education (Illeris 2008). Under these terms, it would be necessary to review how the use of mobile phones as a tool for supporting the educational needs of poor people would be feasible and which measures should be taken for securing the quality of education provided through this mechanism. The performance of individuals in team-working and in handling advanced technology has been often considered as a significant advantage, even higher from these personsÃ¢â¬â¢ educational background (Remenvi 2008). In particular, the ability of
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Corporate Social Responsibility and the US Economy - Research Paper Example The moral minimum anticipates being part of the customary business practice and the forces restraints on the high-powered managers of companies (Cornelissen, 2004). The biggest environmental challenge that is facing most industries is development of an account on the environmental responsibilities widely but within the moral minimum to motivate most business compliances. Therefore, this becomes the accepted way of increasing profits in an accepted manner. In US, most companies assimilate corporate social responsibilities as their marketing strategies. In this regard, consumers may decide to purchase the products with reasons that they are supporting the social causes. Due to this, there is heightened financial performance aimed at the corporation through huge consumer profits. In addition, numerous companies have tried to establish social responsible corporate images. Through such techniques, consumers are involved either directly or indirectly in supporting the causes. Furthermore, there exists a superior model for sustaining development, which posits that businesses have the moral responsibilities to ensure that the activities are ecologically sustainable. Through this theory, the moral minimum should include ecologically sustainable perspectives. This seeks to reunite the natural ecological laws and the moral limits placed on the business activities (Adams, 2002). Businesses recycle the resources in appropriate rates and later compensate the ecosystem due to the losses that the productive capacity posses on its activity. Therefore, this knowledge on social environment perspectives is vital in the management of corporations. Case studies The Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company... According to the research findings corporations like the Home Depot and the Minnesota Company has the responsibilities and duties to remain more significant in terms of environmental and social responsibilities in enhancing the financial performance. The company makes huge profits in participating and promoting the conservation of the environment. If all the resources involved in production are used and destroyed then the future success of the company is not feasible. Thus, the two companies promote environment and social responsibilities. They are partaking to better the natural environment through recycling some of the products and conserving the natural environment. These two companies have been prospects in preserving the environment basing on the social perspectives to act as recommendation for all our companies. Therefore, the companies should focus on the ways and methods of improving the manufacturing process to reduce all forms of pollution. Companies should also play activ e roles in the society and further sponsoring the communal projects to better the community. Through this, the companies will thrive both financially and advocate for our social well being in the society. The use of available natural resources in the U.S economy has been set in accordance to the satisfaction of the current living standards. Nevertheless, the environmental impacts on the global business have caused increased surveillance of United State corporations.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ fitness and their academic achievement Essay Running Head: Discussion Investigations into the relationship between academic achievement and physical fitness have produced mixed results. Weber (1983) correlated fitness, using the Iowa Physical Proficiency Profile (including sit-ups, pull-ups, running), to entrance exam scores and grade point averages for 246 male college students. Fitness level had a significant positive relationship with grade point average (r = . 41), but did not relate to performance scores on entrance exams. Hart and Shay (1994) examined mathematics and verbal SAT scores and the Physical Fitness Index in 60 college women. When the relationships between verbal scores and mathematics scores and fitness index were examined, the r values were . 068 and . 146, respectively, although neither was significant at the . 05 level. A battery of fitness tests (e. g. , flexed arm hang, curl-ups, and step test) were administered to 827 female freshmen and subjects were placed in one of three categories of fitness: high, fair or poor (Arnett, 1988). Arnett (1988) found significant differences in grade point average between the groups, with participants with higher fitness levels having higher GPAs. Using various academic measures and fitness measures on school-aged children, studies have also resulted in inconsistent findings. Clarke and Jarman (1991), examining 217 boys (aged 9, 12 and 15), found that there was a consistent, and for some fitness measures, a significant tendency for the students in the high fitness group to have higher means on both standard achievement tests and grade point average. Current studies have used standardized achievement and fitness tests as measures. A study involving 1,767 students in second, fourth and sixth grades examined the relationship between performance on the Georgia Criterion Referenced Test for Reading, Mathematics and Career Education and performance on a variety of physical fitness tests from the Minnesota Performance Test, the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) Health Related Physical Fitness Tests, and the Texas Physical Fitness-Motor Ability Test (Harris Jones, 1982). For the boys and girls, multiple regression analysis demonstrated a low, but significant, relationship between reading and mathematics ability and the combination of eight motor performance measures examined, five of which were fitness measures. Winn (1993) studied 302 fourth and fifth grade children and examined the relationship between scores on the California Test of Basic Skills (reading, mathematics) and performance on the AAHPERD Presidents Challenge. Using national norms, total fitness and total academic achievement scores were determined. The overall correlation between the total scores was . 213. When each test item was correlated with scores in each of reading, mathematics and language, the correlations ranged from . 043 to . 462, although none of the correlations were significant at the . 05 level. An examination of 7,961 youngsters from 7 to 15 years of age in Australia was conducted by Dwyer, Sallis, Blizzard, Lazarus and Dean (2001). School ratings of scholastic ability were compared with performance on a variety of fitness measures including sit-ups, push-ups, and a 1.6 kilometer run. Across the age groups, there were significant, but weak, correlations (ranging from. 1 to . 27) between fitness (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular force and power) and academic performance. Most recently, the California Department of Education (2002; 2005) reported the results of two studies that examined the relationship between scores on achievement tests and the Fitnessgram. In the first study, performance on the Stanford Achievement Tests and scores on the Fitnessgram for 884,715 students in grades 5, 7, and 9 were investigated. A composite score, ranging from zero to six, was created for physical fitness, in which a student obtained one point for each of the six test items for which the student was determined to be in the healthy zone. In each of the three grades, higher levels of fitness were related to higher academic achievement. The relationship was stronger for math achievement and fitness, especially at higher fitness levels. This study has yet to be published. As a result, no statistical measures are available. Nevertheless, the results were cited by professional sources, such as the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (no date) and the PE Central web site (no date) as evidence that there is a direct relationship between physical fitness levels and academic achievement. In the latter study (California Department of Education, 2005), performance on the California Standards Tests and the Fitnessgram for 1,036,386 students in grades 5, 7 and 9 were compared. Again in this study, students were awarded a composite score, representing the number of fitness test battery items in which they were in the healthy zone. Results were similar to the 2002 study, with higher fitness scores associated with higher scores in English-language arts and mathematics (p . 05). In this study (California Department of Education, 2005), however, only means were reported; thus, no standard deviations were given for the groups compared, nor were effect size measures made to quantify the practical significance of the differences observed between groups. Conclusion In summary, research examining the relationship between academic achievement and physical fitness has produced mixed results. Of these, one study has been published only as a press release in which no statistical analysis was reported and a second study had incomplete statistical information to effectively interpret the results (California Department of Education, 2002; 2005). In the remaining investigations the interpretation of the results focused on whether a statistically significant finding was observed. A number of statistical researchers, however, have emphasized that the correct interpretation of research results requires that not only the statistical significance of the data be considered, but also the practical significance of the findings (Sterne Smith, 2001; Thomas, Salazar Landers, 1991; Vincent, 1999). This is particularly important in studies such as the present one, and the ones discussed above, which typically involve very large sample sizes of hundreds to hundreds of thousands of subjects. Due to the effect of sample size on the calculation of statistical significance, with large sample sizes it is possible to calculate statistical significance on a result that has no practical significance (Vincent, 1999). As evidenced by the history of investigations, the importance of understanding the relationship between physical fitness and academic performance in children and youth is relevant, and increased by recent evidence from studies conducted on animals and elderly humans that increased physical activity results in improved cognitive function (Colcombe et al., 2004; 2004; Rhodes et al. , 2003). References Almond, L. , McGeorge, S. (1998). Physical activity and academic performance. British Journal of Physical Education, 29(2), 8-12. Arnett, C. (1988). Interrelationships between selected physical variables and academic achievement of college women. Research Quarterly, 39, 227-230. Clarke, H. , Jarman, B. O. (1991). Scholastic achievement of boys 9, 12, and 15 years of age as related to various strength and growth measures. Research Quarterly, 32, 155-162. Colcombe, S. J. , Kramer, A. F. , Erickson, K. I. , Scalf, P., McAuley, E. , Cohen, N. J. , et al. (2004). Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 101, 3316-3321 Creswell, J. W. (2002). Educational research. Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Upper Saddle River, N J: Merrill Prentice Hall Dustman, R. E. , Emmerson, R. , Shearer, D. (1994). Physical activity, age and cognitive function. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 2, 143-181. Dwyer, T. , Sallis, J. F. , Blizzard, L. , Lazarus, R. , Dean, K. (2001). Relation of academic performance to physical activity and fitness in children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 13,225-237. Fraenkel, J. R. , Wallen, N. E. (2003). How to design and evaluate research in education (5th ed. ). Boston: McGraw Hill. Harris, D. I. , Jones, M. A. (1982). Reading, math and motor performance. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 53(9), 21-22. Hart, M. E. , Shay, C. T. (1994). Relationship between physical fitness and academic success. Research Quarterly, 35, 443-445 Hopkins, W. G. (2001). New view of statistics: Effect magnitudes. Retrieved July 10, 2004 McAuley, E. , Kramer, A. F. , Colcombe, S. J. (2004). Cardiovascular fitness and neurocognitive function in older adults: A brief review. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 18, 214-220 National Association for Sport and Physical Education. (2002). 2001 Shape of the nation report. Reston, VA: Author. Nutrition and physical activity. Overweight and obesity.. Retrieved July 15, 2004 Ogden, C. L. , Flegal, K. M. , Carroll, M. D. , Johnson, C. L. (2002). Prevalence and trends in overweight among U. S. children and adolescents, 1999-2000. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 17281732. Presidents Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. (1992). Normative data from the 1985 school population fitness survey for use with the presidents challenge youth physical fitness program. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office. Plato, The republic,Book III, 412A-B. Translated by Conford, 1945, pp. 101-102 Rhodes, J. S. , van Praag, H. , Jeffrey, S. , Girard, I. , Mitchell, G. S. , Garland, T. Jr. , et al. (2003). Exercise increases hippocampal neurogenesis to high levels but does not improve spatial learning in mice bred for increased voluntary wheel running. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 10061016. Sterne, J. A. C. , Smith, G. D. (2001). Sifting the evidence whats wrong with significance tests? British Medical Journal, 322, 226-231. Symons, C. W. , Cinelli, B. , James, T. C. , Groff, P. (1997). Bridging student health risks and academic achievement through comprehensive school health programs. Journal of School Health, 76, 220-227. Thomas, J. R. , Salazar, W. , Landers, D. M. (1991). What is missing in p is less than .05? Effect size. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 62(3), 344-348. Vannier, M. , Poindexter, H. B. (1964). Physical activities for college women. Philadephia: W. B. Saunders. Vincent, W. J. (1999). Statistics in kinesiology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Weber, J. R. (1983). Relationship of physical fitness to success in college and to . rsonality. Research Quarterly, 24, 471-474. Winn, K. L. (1993). A study of the relationship between physical fitness levels and the academic achievement of fourth and fifth grade students. Unpublished masters thesis, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Developing the Literate Child Introduction Ã¢â¬ËEarly-years educators relate what is being taught to what childrenÃ already know. In order to extend each childÃ¢â¬â¢s learning they supportÃ and guide children through each new stage of learning. They knowÃ that the abilities and attitudes that young children develop in theÃ early years are an important part of a life-long journey during whichÃ children will need to acquire all the language skills necessary toÃ interpret, manipulate, control and organize language for their ownÃ present and future purposes.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Browne 1996, vii) The above quote neatly summarises the need to ensure that young childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s language development is fostered in the best possible way by educators. What children learn now can have a life-long impact upon how they interact with the world in future. It is the childÃ¢â¬â¢s teacher, who has the capacity to greatly influence how a child acquires and uses language, to assess what the child already knows, and to use this knowledge to foster and guide the child through, Ã¢â¬Ëeach new stage of learning,Ã¢â¬â¢ (Browne 1996, vii). It was with this clear intention in mind, with which the following study was undertaken. The aim, to assess one childÃ¢â¬â¢s current speaking and listening, reading and writing skills, to analyse any observations carefully, and to use the information gathered as a basis for planning the childÃ¢â¬â¢s future learning needs. The child chosen, a female, was aged 5 years and 9 months at the time of the study and does not have any recognised special educati onal needs. She will, henceforth, be referred to as, Ã¢â¬ËChild A,Ã¢â¬â¢ for the remainder of the report. Reading Analysis Listening to Child A read on a one-to-one basis was extremely informative. She is starting to use some expression in her voice, and is attempting to make the text sound more like natural language, however, she has little sense of phrase boundaries, and consequently, can often sound stilted. She regularly has to decode words on a word-by-word basis, but is not always successful in her attempts, meaning that the language does not flow. There were frequent extended pauses during the reading of each sentence. On a number of occasions Child A was unable to decode a word but had a limited number of alternative strategies available to her, in order to help her to continue reading. The miscue analyses showed that Child AÃ¢â¬â¢s average negative miscue rate was 8.06% for the books chosen from her particular reading Ã¢â¬ËstageÃ¢â¬â¢. It is recommended that when matching a book to a reader the negative miscue rate should lie somewhere between 3% and 8%, with a miscue rate of 10% representing frustration level, (Moon et al. 1994, 116).This evidence may suggest that the text was too difficult for Child A, resulting in a negative effect on her confidence and interest. Graham and Kelly propound that, Ã¢â¬ËSurprising insights into childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s reading can emerge in the one-to-one conversations which you have with them,Ã¢â¬â¢ (Graham and Kelly 1997, 115). I talked at length with Child A and we discussed her reading habits and attitudes towards books. It quickly became obvious that Child A loves books in many forms. She confided that she often imagines that she is the princess in the stories which are read to her. Child A likes to look at the pictures in books and tell her own stories from these, but feels unable to read the words alone. It became clear that Child A has access to many books at home, and Mum and Dad evidently read a lot. She delighted in recounting her first experience of visiting a library, which occurred recently, and she was given ample time to choose a book to take home. Child A proudly confided that she knew the book by heart as she had read it that often. It was evident that Child A, not only enjoys reading, but also see s herself as a good reader. Observation of Child A during several guided reading sessions with her class teacher, presented a different picture. Child A frequently became easily distracted, and failed to focus on the text which was in front of her. She appeared to be restless and anxious to move off onto different activities. Child A was confident when attempting to read a word she thought she knew, however, when she came across an unfamiliar word she would not attempt to read it. With prompting she would begin to Ã¢â¬ËsoundÃ¢â¬â¢ a word out, but often gave up before completing the word. Again, Child A seems over reliant on picture cues and was attempting to tell the story from the pictures. She remained unfocused throughout each guided reading session and while other children were turning the pages of their books, Child A sat with her book shut. She was unable to participate in the group discussion concerning the book and was unable to relate the main points of the story to the teacher when asked. Child A was also observed during shared whole-class reading sessions. While she did not openly volunteer answers to the questions asked, she did respond once the class teacher asked her a direct question. In consideration of the above evidence, and in conjunction with the level descriptors provided by the National Curriculum (www.nc.uk.net), it is possible to suggest that Child A is working at Level One in terms of her reading: Ã¢â¬ËPupils recognise familiar words in simple texts. They use theirÃ knowledge of letters and sound-symbol relationships in order toÃ read words and to establish meaning when reading aloud. In theseÃ activities they sometimes require support. They express theirÃ response to poems, stories and non-fiction by identifying aspectsÃ they like.Ã¢â¬â¢ (www.nc.uk.net) However, it is clear that Child A meets only part of this level descriptor, as she is not yet using her phonic knowledge to read words, and to use the words to comprehend the story. Implications for Teaching and Learning: Reading It is clear from the evidence given above that Child A is not a confident of fluent reader. She is working in the early stages of National Curriculum level 1, and will need specific support if she is to begin to work in the later stages of the level, and indeed to start to work towards National Curriculum level 2. The problems with Child AÃ¢â¬â¢s use of expression and lack of awareness of phrase boundaries, could perhaps be addressed by adults modelling the reading process. Graham and Kelly suggest that this is a viable way of first introducing a book to a child, before they are given the opportunity to read the book for themselves, (Graham and Kelly 1997, 105). This could give Child A the confidence she needs and will expose her to the way books should be read, using lots of expression. It will also aid her awareness of phrase boundaries, particularly if the adult traces the text with their finger as they read and makes exaggerated pauses when full stops or commas are encountered. Child AÃ¢â¬â¢s reluctance to join in group and class discussion about books could be a result of a lack of confidence in her own abilities, or perhaps she is unsure of how to respond correctly and does not want to Ã¢â¬Ërisk,Ã¢â¬â¢ getting it wrong. Again, one-one-one reading sessions could be an ideal way to address this problem. Graham and Kelly (1997) suggest that there should be a specific pattern to one-on-one reading sessions with young children, this pattern consists of five separate steps. Ã¢â¬ËWarming up the text,Ã¢â¬â¢ allows children to look at the book chosen with an adult, handling it and making links with their own experiences, making them feel more comfortable before they begin reading (Graham and Kelly 1997, 105). Ã¢â¬ËReviewing the book,Ã¢â¬â¢ is also an important part of the confidence building process, and would allow Child A to give her opinion on the book without fear of failure, (Graham and Kelly 1997, 106). These strategies will hopefully help to b uild Child AÃ¢â¬â¢s self confidence and she should then eventually be able to give her opinions in shared and guided reading sessions. The miscue analyses also indicated that the books from Child AÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëshelf,Ã¢â¬â¢ were perhaps too difficult for her, resulting in boredom and frustration, this could also have been the case during the guided reading sessions. Child A should be given books from a Ã¢â¬Ëlower shelf,Ã¢â¬â¢ to read in order to build up her self confidence. In addition to this, being placed with children of a similar, or slightly lower, ability for guided reading sessions could also have a positive impact. Speaking and Listening Analysis During whole-class, teacher-led activities Child A did not speak unless she was asked a direct question by the class teacher. On such occasions, Child A would sometimes respond accurately, at other times she would not respond at all. When the children were asked to respond to questions by raising their hands, Child A would not put up her hand. During such teaching sessions, Child A was often observed to be very restless, although she was keen to sit right at the front. The children were regularly asked to work with Ã¢â¬Ëtalking partners,Ã¢â¬â¢ during the direct teaching, it was observed that Child A never responded to her partner in such situations, simply refusing to speak. During independent activities, Child A was observed to ignore other children on her table. Often her peers attempted to draw her into their activity or conversation, however, she did not respond to them in anyway, and indeed seemed to ignore them. Child A was also observed during Ã¢â¬Ëfree-play,Ã¢â¬â¢ situations. Generally Child A would remain on her self-chosen task and did not initiate conversation with her peers. The exception to this being conflict situations, where Child A was extremely vocal in expressing her unhappiness to another child. When surrounded by other children, Child A still did not join in with their chatter. During free-play Child A would occasionally respond to a direct question from an adult observer, but at other times would attempt to ignore them. Occasionally Child A would address a direct comment to an adult observer, in relation to her self-generated task, but did not then become engaged in conversation. Play-times seemed to present a different view of Child A, in terms of her speaking and listening ability. She was observed on several occasions playing, with another girl from her class, a variety of different clapping and singing games. The two girls demonstrated different games to each other, and were evidently listening and responding to each other. Ã¢â¬ËPupils talk about matters of immediate interest. They listen to othersÃ and usually respond appropriately. They convey simple meanings toÃ a range of listeners, speaking audibly, and begin to extend their ideasÃ or accounts by providing some detail.Ã¢â¬â¢ (www.nc.uk.net) This level descriptor indicates that, although Child A only meets part of the criteria for National Curriculum level 1, she is working at the lower end of this level. The observations made in the playground show that Child A is able, when the opportunity presents itself, to, Ã¢â¬Ëtalk about matters of immediate interest,Ã¢â¬â¢ (www.nc.uk.net). Implications for Teaching and Learning: Speaking and Listening The evidence collected suggests that although Child A is confident when speaking to her peers at playtimes, she is not comfortable during class or group situations on and often prefers to remain silent. It is important to develop her ability to, Ã¢â¬Ëlisten to others,Ã¢â¬â¢ and to, Ã¢â¬Ërespond appropriately,Ã¢â¬â¢ if Child A is to work towards National Curriculum level 2 for speaking and listening (www.nc.uk.net ). One of the key learning objectives for speaking and listening for children in Year One is, Ã¢â¬Ëto ask and answer questions, make relevant contributions, offer suggestions and take turns,Ã¢â¬â¢ (DFES 2003a, 24). The document Speaking, Listening, Learning: working with children in Key Stages 1 and 2 (DFES 2003a), offers some good suggestions for teaching towards this learning objective, and recommends a great deal of paired work, and teacher modelling of how to ask and answer questions. If Child A was able to observe adults modelling paired work, or some of her peers engaged in discussion work, she may start to feel sufficiently confident enough to join in herself. An additional strategy to help Child A during paired work, might be to try her with a variety of different partners to see if she responds better to a certain child. Ã¢â¬ËAll areas of the curriculum offer distinct opportunities for developing childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s speaking and listening,Ã¢â¬â¢ (DFES 2003b, 11) and consequently it may be possible to engage Child B more fully in speaking and listening activities when linked to a subject she enjoys. The use of paired discussion, could be better suited to a science lesson, for example, rather than confining such discussions to English lessons. Writing Analysis Several conversations with Child A led to the conclusion that she does perceive herself as a good writer. She enjoys writing for a purpose, she explained that she regularly writes lists and stories at home, giving them to her parents to read. It is clear from examining the writing samples, that while Child A is confidently identifying the initial and final phonemes in words, and writing these down, she appears to be having more difficulty with medial phonemes, as many of these are missing from the words she has written down. For example in Appendix III, the writing clearly shows that Child A has attempted to write the word, Ã¢â¬Ëwonderful,Ã¢â¬â¢ however she has clearly identified the sounds at the beginning and ends of the word, but the middle sounds have not been clearly audible to her, resulting in the word, Ã¢â¬Ëwunful.Ã¢â¬â¢ The three samples of Child AÃ¢â¬â¢s writing which were examined (see Appendices I, II and III), indicate that she is making phonetically plausible attempts at words as the writing can be clearly read without the aid of the child in most places. Child A does show an awareness of how to use full stops, although these are not consistently in the correct places. She does not yet seem aware that it is necessary to leave a clear space in between her words, and only does so in a couple of places. The evidence listed above, in conjunction with the writing samples contained within Appendices I, II, and III, indicate that Child A is working at National Curriculum level 1: Ã¢â¬ËPupilsÃ¢â¬â¢ writing communicates meaning through simple words andÃ phrases. In their reading or their writing, pupils begin to showÃ awareness of how full stops are used. Letters are usually clearlyÃ shaped and correctly oriented. (www.nc.uk.net ) It is clear from the above level descriptor, that although Child A is working at National Curriculum level 1, she does not meet all of the listed criteria and, therefore, should not be assessed for level 2. Implications for Teaching and Learning: Writing The evidence given supports the suggestion that Child A is progressing through National Curriculum level 1 and into level 2. There are several things that could be done to support this transition. It could be said that her main development point is to improve her spelling and to start to recognise medial sounds in words. Child A also needs to start leaving finger spaces in between words and to start using full stops correctly. The publication, Progression in Phonics: materials for whole class teaching, (DFES 1999) provides lots of suggestions for improving Child AÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to hear medial sounds. For example, the game, Ã¢â¬ËCroaker,Ã¢â¬â¢ develops the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to hear and identify phonemes in a specified part of the word, using a puppet, (DFES 1999, 26). Such a game could improve Child AÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to hear and identify medial phonemes with the aim of improving her spelling. Reid suggests that shared and modelled writing are effective ways of supporting young childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s writing development, (Reid in Bentley and Burman et al. 1999, 103-104). This could be a good way of improving Child AÃ¢â¬â¢s use of finger spaces and full stops. If the teacher models the correct use of full stops and finger spaces, and also makes lots of deliberate mistakes which the children can help to correct, Child A will begin to understand how to use full stops and finger spaces effectively in her own writing. Conclusion In conclusion, the evidence presented above indicates that Child A is working at National Curriculum level 1 for her reading, writing and speaking and listening skills. It has already been suggested that effective teachers use what children already know as a basis for developing their language skills and facilitating their progression. The evidence collected has been carefully analysed with this aim in mind, and areas for the development of Child AÃ¢â¬â¢s literacy skills have been identified. Adult modelling of the reading and writing process should play a key part in this development, if Child A is to make good progress towards National Curriculum level 2. Peer modelling could also play an important role, and could also help to foster Child AÃ¢â¬â¢s self confidence. It is important that all these suggestions are linked to other areas of the curriculum in order to engage and interest Child A, although this should also be of paramount importance when teaching all children. If all these suggestions are put into action, Child A should start to make sound progress and will, in addition, be playing an important part in this progression herself. Bibliography Browne, Ann (1996) Developing Language and Literacy 3-8. London: Paul Chapman Publishing Limited. DFES (1999) Progression In Phonics: Materials for Whole-Class Teaching (The National Literacy Strategy) London: Department for Education and Employment DFES (2003a) Speaking, Listening, Learning: working with children in Key Stages 1 and 2: Teaching objectives and classroom activities. London: Department for Education and Employment DFES (2003b) Speaking, Listening, Learning: working with children in Key Stages 1 and 2: Handbook. London: Department for Education and Employment Graham, Judith and Kelly, Alison (1997) Reading Under Control: Teaching Reading in the Primary School. London: David Fulton Publishers Ltd. Moon, Cliff and Bourne, Jill (1994) The Open University Resource Pack: Learning to Teach Reading. Milton Keynes: The Open University. Reid, Dee Writing at Key Stage 1 in Bentley, Diana, Burman, Christine, Chamberlin, Rosemary et al. The Really Practical Guide to Primary English ( 1999) London: Stanley Thorne Publishers Ltd. www.nc.uk.net
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 is the primary federal statute that prohibits employers from discriminating against employees in terms, privileges and conditions of employment on the basis of age. The law also applies to employment agencies and labor organizations. To be covered by the ADEA, an individual must be 40 years old or older. There is no cap on an employee's age to be covered by the ADEA. What law requires/prohibits Under the ADEA, it is unlawful to discriminate against a person because of his/her age with respect to any term, condition, or privilege of employment, including hiring, firing, promotion, layoff, compensation, benefits, job assignments, and training. It is also unlawful to retaliate against an individual for opposing employment practices that discriminate based on age or for filing an age discrimination charge, testifying, or participating in any way in an investigation, proceeding, or litigation under the ADEA. Who is covered The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA) protects individuals who are 40 years of age or older from employment discrimination based on age. The ADEAÃ¢â¬â¢s protections apply to both employees and job applicants. The ADEA applies to employers with 20 or more employees, including state and local governments. It also applies to employment agencies and labor organizations, as well as to the federal government. ADEA protections include: * Apprenticeship ProgramsÃ * Job Notices and Advertisements * Pre-Employment Inquiries * Benefits * Waivers of ADEA Rights Reporting/recordkeeping requirements Employers must keep all payroll records for three years. Employers must also keep on file any employee benefit plan (such as pension and insurance plans) and any written seniority or merit system for the full period the plan or system is in effect and for at least one year after its termination How does one make a complaint if they feel the law has been violated? An individual must pre-file a charge with the EEOC within 180 days after the alleged unlawful practice occurred or within 300 days if a state age discrimination law (including remedies) exits.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
The role of the American Indians (Native Americans) in the United States cannot be underestimated. In fact, this people are the part of a cultural legacy of the United States. Due to the multiple tribes inhabiting America from East to West Americans loaned many of the common names and other terms going directly from the language of Native Americans. It concerns everything about the names of multiple states, towns, cities, etc. However, this research has its aim to disclose the nature of Native Americans in terms of gender roles and gender issues scoped out for today.In such an analysis one should pay special attention to some similarities or differences (natch! ) about two-spirit people among Native Americans. Moreover, it is not for nothing that the cultural as well as mythological approaches are taken to help an observer get the right idea of specificities going around these unique people, namely American Indians.First of all, it is possible to suggest that Indians living in the No rth America and throughout the United States, in particular, keep their culture in safety from the ominous (as they say) impacts of the Western culture.Hence, some similar terms and states of people have another coloring among Natives than it is among Westerners. Thus, one of the aspects in the research paper covers the cultural aspects of these spiritually well-treated people. Next, the question will be about the concept of two-spirit people (two-spirits) coming out to be among Native Americans. Finally, the discussion will touch upon some justifications of suchlike characterization of Native Americans. This will presuppose using features of compare/contrast analysis.As a finishing stroke, an observer should be ready to perceive the reality of two-spirit people, as it falls into traditional concept of gender, sex, sexuality, and spirituality among Native Americans (Jacobs, Thomas, & Lang, 1997).Nonetheless, the play is worth candles, as they say. Thus, the value of the research is in its sociological as well as anthropological investigation of tribal life of Native Americans and some peculiarities of berdache people (meaning two-spirits). Evaluation First of all, it is necessary to draw oneÃ¢â¬â¢s attention to the mythology of Native Americans.They are quite spiritual in their beliefs and in traditions as well. Everything about their beliefs in divinity starts from glorifying spirits incorporated in well-known elements of nature or natural features (Leeming & Page, 2000).Woodlands and Plains are the most appreciated by Natives, as the place for the basic spiritual powers (Manitou and wakan) which are personified in these widespread areas inhabited by American Indians (Leeming & Page, 2000). Hence, the cultural background of Native Americans starts with the mythology and faith they share for centuries.Such a multifaceted reality encounters some critical points while Western civilizations are trying to critique beliefs of Natives, as primitive and no longer p ossible in a fast-growing world. Nevertheless, mythology is inseparable out of what Natives secure about their own attitudes toward some social events or people being different than the rest of the tribal community. This characterization is for a reason, since gender roles and the concept of sexuality are thought of in a different way by American Indians.It is a matter of their identity and dignity. Owing to keeping their culture(s) in safety, Native Americans secure social equilibrium on the spot. Thus, it is worth mentioning that features of any kind are open for discussion in a tribe.Some of them being a taboo for Western people are beyond reproach among Natives. In fact, the question is about Native American berdaches, as the two-spirit people. As it was mentioned before, American Indians kept their precious beliefs out of Western implications.As a matter of fact, Indians are likely to omit the notion of Ã¢â¬Å"berdacheÃ¢â¬ by changing it to another concept of Ã¢â¬Å"two-spir itÃ¢â¬ (Jacobs, Thomas, & Lang, 1997). This is because the term itself originates from the nineteenth century when it defined Ã¢â¬Å"slaveboys,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"catamites,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"inverts.Ã¢â¬ Hence, Natives, as a freewill community of people in the United States, prove their identity through the notions of spirituality and belonging to a tribe. This is the most valued features associated with these people. American Indians are non-violent by nature. It is well reported in the legends going along with tribes throughout the continent.Before getting the idea of the Great Spirit, two people were proposed to choose the weapon: the first one chose a gun and became a white man while the second one chose a bow and an arrow and became an Indian (Leeming & Page, 2000).In this mythic inscription American Indians tried to illuminate that spirits saved them from Ã¢â¬Å"extinction,Ã¢â¬ so to speak, by letting to choose afterwards. Otherwise, they would become as a Whiteman, cruel a nd apt at violence. This is the gist of why American Indians are likely to ignore what the Western civilization has proposed them.It is so even in social relationships, of course. Indians are not willing to use the same terms as whites use. They are scrupulous at finding a better explanation of peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ lives. Notwithstanding some unique states of peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ souls and spirits in a tribe, Indians follow the prescriptions of their predecessors in judging all of their identity. It is about time to give some new implications on the term of two-spirit people. In fact, these are those being of one gender physically, but feeling strongly the presence of another gender at the same time.This simple definition provides a scope of reasoning over the nature of indigenous people in the United States. Gender was always viewed by Native Americans as having a spiritual background. The physical sphere for the spirit is a secondary thing to interpret IndiansÃ¢â¬â¢ justification of why t hey think of gender relationships differently. By contrast, indigenous people of America use their own characterization of gender. Brown (1997) identifies six basic gender styles among Native Americans, i. e. men and women, not-men and not-women, gays and lesbians.This characterization gives substantial grounds to suppose American Indians more varied and free-to-judge about gender analysis and its significance. Western culture views these particularities senseless reducing them to four or even two elements. It is due to the influence of morale and historical background outlining bigotries as of berdaches. It is important that American Indians view a man and a woman as two beginnings or halves to give further life to a tribe. These incorporations are done to prescribe a divine nature of gender in its spiritual patterning.All in all, indigenous people are apt at coming up with the alternative gender style in their society. Despite Western people, Indians, therefore, reduce an extent o f tribal conflicts due to a right understanding of different genders in people. For instance, in Santee Dakota and Lakota tribes, gender styles are in most points associated with particular cultural norms as for berdaches and fetishism as a term which unnecessarily linked to two-spirit people (Brown, 1997). These particularities gave American Indians more freedom to choose their social niche within a tribal society.Nevertheless, one should see a sociological prerequisite for diminishing a degree of controversial, frequently conflict, situations. Native American gays and lesbians is another aspect of the discussion. These people feel no prejudice or blame because of their gender style. In fact, two-spirit people are concerned with some magical power being with them, as healers or even as associates to witchcraft (Jacobs, Thomas, & Lang, 1997). In this respect American Indian people do not feel like hating two-spirit people. One should notice a distinct use of the word Ã¢â¬Å"spirit.Ã ¢â¬ This is where a respectful attitude toward Native American berdaches starts. What is more, it is largely considered that indigenous people in the United States are unique for their own views on life and manners of social existence.This goes along with the anthropological features of two-gendered spirits of some people living in a tribe. As a matter of fact, in the contemporary discourse gays and lesbians among Native Americans are really different from those of other ethnical belongings (Western people, in particular) (Brown, 1997).Century-long history of American Indians and their unbreakable strong traditions in fulfilling their destinies does not give them a chance to drop a hint of doubt concerning their spirituality. It is remarkable that two-spirit people are also endured with force.This one is appreciated among tribal society to bear a healing power and a so-called Ã¢â¬ËmascotÃ¢â¬â¢ for the rest of the society. Thus, these people are largely considered to be involve d into spiritual connections with the Great Spirit as well as with Manitou and wakan.Once again, it is significant to admit that the main difference of shaping gender identities between Native Americans and Western people is in their cultures. Culture is a multilevel system bearing the identity of a community or even society of individuals.The anthropological issue is that cultural belonging exemplifies itself in gender attitudes (Wood, 2008). As was mentioned before, two-spirit people are a particular calque for gays and lesbians in the rest of the world. However, this notion is incomplete, as it bears no connection to how American Indians treat it.Thereupon, one should be careful and accurate in explaining the fact that two-spirit people are not similar to gays and lesbians in a simple conception. Two-spirit people are admired among Native Americans (Wood, 2008).Intersexuality means something special for American Indians. It is an aspect of a sacred features in a man incorporated with spirits being of different genders. Therefore, people should not treat it wrong that two-spirit people of Native Americans have nothing to do with something else but gay or lesbian attitudes and way of life.The features of acceptance and belonging for two-spirit people today are critical, as there is a collision of two cultural backgrounds, namely Native American and traditional gay cultures (Gilley, 2006).Two-spirit American Indians are so by their initial realization of their place among people and in terms of spiritual features corresponding to their Indian identity. It is hard to talk on this topic due to the increase of current gay culture dampening genuinely sacred understanding of two-spirit implementation among Indians.Recent studies on being a two-spirit individual within Native American communities show that it is impossible for indigenous people to impose surgery for making the prevailing feeling as of gender physically apparent (Gilley, 2006).This is a silly thing f or those who knew about two-spirit people long before the scientific and technological progress and the development of medicine and plastic surgery. It is a state of spirit, a state of soul, thus, a state of mind for Native Americans.Nonetheless, it is not a big secret that in contemporary tribal rites and priorities two-spirit people encounter some problems with the overall acceptance and further belonging to American Indian society (Wood, 2008). Historically, the cultural tradition of two-spirit people among different tribes has its specific definitions. Lev (2004) provides a set of different notions for two-spirit people in different tribes: Ã¢â¬Å"winkte (Lakota), nadleehi (Navaho), bote (Crow), lhamana (Zuni), and haxuÃ¢â¬â¢xan (Arapaho) for males, and hwame (Mojave) for femalesÃ¢â¬ (59).Dual-gender states are explained differently but all of them derived from the precious for Indians cultural framework and strong connection to their indigenous beliefs in spirituality of a ny individual within Native American society. The hegemonic Western culture is a great impediment for two-spirit people among Native Americans. The question is that these people cannot but be nearby the trends and features of traditional gay and lesbian culture. Thus, dualism of genders seems to be on the edge of having no genuine spiritual coloring for Indians.In this respect it is interesting that Native American berdaches are not traditionally concerned with homosexuality in terms of gender relationships, but just physically (Jacobs, Thomas, & Lang, 1997). This evaluation comes out to be a critical and quite contradicting as explained on the part of Native Americans. The idea is that everyone having an intercourse with two-spirit people is never considered to be a gay or a lesbian: If you are a man and you have sexual relationship with a Ã¢â¬Ëberdache,Ã¢â¬â¢ youÃ¢â¬â¢re not having sex with another man. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re having sex with a Ã¢â¬Ëberdache.Ã¢â¬â¢And if youÃ¢â¬â ¢re a woman who has sex with a Ã¢â¬Ëberdache,Ã¢â¬â¢ youÃ¢â¬â¢re not having sex with a woman, youÃ¢â¬â¢re having sex with a Ã¢â¬Ëberdache. Ã¢â¬â¢ So the partners of the Ã¢â¬ËberdacheÃ¢â¬â¢ technically are never homosexual because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not having sex with their same genderÃ¢â¬ (Jacobs, Thomas, & Lang, 1997, p. 104-105) This truth (apparently, an assumption) by Native Americans illuminates a sticking point for Western mentality and rationale of what being a gay or a lesbian means at large. Cultural prospects are above all for indigenous people in the North America.In fact, there is a feature of admiration in evidence. Many anthropologists refer Native Americans in their understanding of two-spirit people to some Asian cultures which have full-fledged settings of beliefs similar to duality of genders among American Indians. As might be considered, these implications are for a reason. They drop a light on the century-long communication within Indian peoples. In turn it was reflected on every feature of social life and further adaptation for living with Ã¢â¬Å"whiteÃ¢â¬ neighbors. This is why gender relationships are widely anticipated nowadays.To say more, American Indians are likely to personify deities in terms of their duality and reference to both genders. Two personifications of gender types from the spiritual point of view are eagle for a male part and coyote for a female part (Leeming & Page, 2000). Embodiment of two genders associated with nature and animals, particularly, brings a new understanding of homosexuality in. It has many things to do with neutrality and supremacy when individuals bear different feelings and preferences in life as for individuals of the same gender.It is almost impossible to speak about a two-spirit man or woman, as a bearer of some particular gender type. Here comes a dilemma in judging American Indians. They are never considered to be of the same values as pursuant to European people.Not-men and not-women are likely to be discovered out of men and women but as those having some magic power at their disposal (Brown, 1997). Among six gender styles, one should be attentive and quite rational not to mix not-men and not-women with gays and lesbians. This is why there is another incorporation of gender belonging as constituted by Native Americans.At a glance, it is hard to believe it, but it needs a proper look at how socialization takes place among American Indians. Hence, it is impossible to identify two-spirit people similar to current gays and lesbians.This would be a particular anthropological and sociological mistake. Different researches proved it to be right and full of rationality if only looking at the historical, cultural, and religious background of indigenous peoples living in America. Looking at what has been discussed previously, one can make up his/her mind about how to explain two-spirit people among Native Americans.It is apparent that the main difference betwee n two-spirits and gays with lesbians is in the spiritual and cultural background. It is a niche which provides a place for further dimensions in gender styles and gender treatment among American Indians. In the milieu of Ã¢â¬Å"Native American gender diversityÃ¢â¬ most of the scholars refer all two-spirits to bearing more male features than female ones (Gilley, 2006). This is why, since the colonial era until present it is documented that both not-men and not-women are basically characterized through features of masculinity.This assumption provides a scope of differences to consider two-spirit people not the same as traditionally understood homosexual minorities, as long as the European gay culture presupposes men to be like women in manners and other features and women to be more like women, as they can understand each other better than men could. This makes a constraint between two types of cultural and social ways of perceiving the reality. Westerners and Native Americans deli neate initially different beliefs which are inseparable from gender identities and attitudes toward them.The thing is that homosexuality among Westerners is in most points a reflection of Ancient Greek attitudes toward gender relationships. This idea got through different philosophical and social theories and explanations leading toward present identification of gay culture, as something transcendent and magnificent. Conversely, the evaluation of two-spirit homosexual identity among Native Americans begins on the moment when Indians came to the American continent long before the Europeans discovered it.Thus, it is rational to state two-spirit tradition of American Indians, as purely inscribed into the cultural background of these peoples. Hence, it has no Western or some other alloys of cultural intrusions, as Indians were isolated for many years continentally and by sea. This is why both cultures do not fit in what they mean for people belonging to them. A civilized life and seemin gly old-fashioned traits in traditions are like a medal with two different edges. Strict and quite elaborated norms in tribes of American Indians did not exclude homosexuality.This provides an assumption that transgender versatility should be taken into consideration in every culture in the world. As concerned with Native Americans, their predominantly genuine coloring in provision of the same sex relationships among some few people in a community are functionally defined. In this respect Lev (2004) identifies three core-features among two-spirit people within Native Americans, namely: Ã¢â¬Å"(1) a cross-role specialization in social, productive, and domestic roles; (2) spiritual sanction and associated powers; and (3) gender variation often denoted by cross dressing behaviorÃ¢â¬ (60).This classification of the basic functions as of two-spirit people assumes implication of the key-features hierarchy. Just as they are listed above, these features should be understood by means of t he ascending scale.Two-spirit people, as described in the several tribes in the United States since the colonial time, were obliged to commit with both male and female social worlds (Gilley, 2006). It corresponds to the fact that social taboos were not possible for those who could not give birth to a child. Moreover, it becomes so until now.Two-spirit people are no longer appropriate to be claimed as having something of a man or of a woman. These people shared labor of both gender types inside Native Americans. This is why in Zuni, Cherokee, and other tribes two-spirit people were respectful for being good craftsmen or highly apt at social work within the tribal community.In fact, men could do weaving and potting alongside with hunting big game and building wigwams (Gilley, 2006). Two-spirit men were not separated from the male part of the community, but rather appreciated and adored. This constituted the same for two-spirit women.Notwithstanding, two-spirit people are widely said t o be another, third, type of gender relationships among Native Americans. This statement gives enough space to consider two-spirits economically and socially profitable for their communities.However, it is possible for those representatives of such gender type who position themselves as Jacks-of-all-trades. Nevertheless, experts are apt at characterizing the two-spirits as rather valuable individuals who are even believed to predict different events and to speak directly with spirits. This cannot but suppress ardency of the rest of a tribe.However, there were evidences when two-spirit people were widely suspected in witchcraft and bad will of spirits (Jacobs, Thomas, & Lang, 1997). Not for nothing, it was something like hatred to witches in a medieval Europe. Wood (2008) is inclined in her studies to state that two-spirit people of indigenous tribes of America are the result of the prior matrilineal system established among American Indians. In this respect everything, social, prope rty, or inherited things, were for women, not for men. Perhaps, this was a real pivot around which a symbiosis of two genders appeared and was applied to be another kind of gender relationships.To date, it is taken for granted that two-spirit people embody mostly cultural features and consequences in the evolution of Native AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢ social life and development. Some experts still show perseverance in identifying two-spirit people through their spiritual estimation. However, the historical and ethno-sociological points of view give grounds to make sure Native American two-spirit people emerged as a result of some social privileges and appropriate changes in the social system and in stratification of individuals inhabiting a definite tribe.Different biases are concerned with some assumptions on the divine and culturally original personification of two-spirit people. This provides further discussion or debate, so to speak, in order to evaluate the social and cultural insights into the essence of what people call Native Americans.Contemporary talks on the theme of two-spirit people among indigenous tribes and peoples living in America including Inuit and Siberian Chukchi are all about transgendered people (being so few within communities) who are concerned women if they are two-spirit men and vice versa (Jacobs, Thomas, & Lang, 1997).This is in evidence until now, and no Western intruder can explain indigenous people the gist of such doing or, perhaps, its amoral side. Moreover, culture is a strong and quite dynamic unity of states and relationships between individuals of the same cultural terrain. This is why there is plenty to talk about social factors impacting cultural growth or decline. Now, it is vital to distinguish between the main dimensions to explain the nature of two-spirit people.It was aforementioned that this is a social and physical mixture of feelings inside an individual grounded on the cultural and the religious features. Lev (2004) giv es a holistic idea on how an observer should think of two-spirit people taking into consideration everything highlighted earlier, namely: Ã¢â¬Å"Though physically Two-Spirit people were not commonly known to be hermaphroditic or intersexed, they are considered to have the social characteristics of both men and women and Ã¢â¬â consistent with the Indian worldview Ã¢â¬â they are thought to possess the visions of both sexesÃ¢â¬ (60).This is, perhaps, the most appropriate in terms of the social discourse. The main obstacle as well as means to survive for two-spirit people is that they should adapt to two social systems with different settings of values and morale, i. e. American and American Indian (Brown, 1997). Getting through the diversity of likes and dislikes in both systems, these people managed to save their culture despite their gender inappropriateness with traditionally marked borders.This is the gist of what makes indigenous people living in the United States so scru pulous and up-and-coming in social or everyday activities. Another applicable feature of two-spirit people is that they do not separate themselves out of the society and their own communities (Jacobs, Thomas, & Lang, 1997). Traditional Western culture presupposes that gays and lesbians should gather together in special places during some thematic parties and on love parades, in particular.Western gays and lesbians are more likely to isolate their community out of the heterosexual majority. Obviously, some features corresponding to morale and political situation in a country have caused such behaviors. On the other side, isolation is a kind of pride suchlike people manifest to the rest of the society. By contrast, two-spirit people never neglect their direct participation in social services and things to be done at the moment. They feel their responsibility to be nearby the majority and help as they can.This is why two-spirit people are full-fledged individuals among the heterosexual peers. Conclusion/recommendations Based on the investigation and analysis done in this research paper, it is clear now that indigenous people have a set of peculiarities about those individuals who mate with the same sex partners. One should not mix it with the traditionally implemented notions of gays and lesbians. Two-spirit people are true members of their tribal communities and of the American Indian society on the whole.It is said that dual-gendered people among Native Americans are the representatives of the third gender which presupposes both male and female views incorporated with suchlike individuals. Historically, the anthropological analysis proves direct sociological links within which the formation or emergence of two-spirit people began. Even though, the study bears an analytical and descriptive evaluation of two-spirit people among Native Americans, it provides a framework for further recommendations.First of all, the study serves as a direct stimulus for would-be so ciologists and anthropologists. Thus, it is vital that practitioners in these fields take a look at the overall analysis of gender issues among indigenous peoples of America. It would be a great precursor for further deeper insights in the subject matter. However, the research would be incomplete if observers or young scholars found out more up-to-date sources on the problem itself and its place in social affairs maintained and developed throughout the American society.Hence, the overall representation of the research paper covers exhaustive information on two-spirit peoples among American Indians. Its value and its significance for sociology cannot be underestimated for further implications in the Native American studies at schools and in colleges.ReferenceBrown, L. B. (1997). Two spirit people: American Indian, lesbian women and gay men. New York, NY: Routledge.Gilley, B. J. (2006). Becoming two-spirit: gay identity and social acceptance in Indian country. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Jacobs, S. -E. , Thomas, W. , & Lang, S. (1997). Two-spirit people: Native American gender identity, sexuality, and spirituality. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.Leeming, D. A. , & Page, J. (2000). The Mythology of Native North America. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.Lev, A. I. (2004). Transgender emergence: therapeutic guidelines for working with gender-variant people and their families. New York, NY: Routledge.Wood, J. T. (2008). Gendered lives: communication, gender, and culture. Stanford, CT: Cengage Learning.
Friday, November 8, 2019
S Orbital Atomic Structure At any given moment, an electron can be found at any distance from the nucleus and in any direction according to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The s orbital is a spherically-shaped region describing where an electron can be found, within a certain degree of probability. The shape of the orbital depends on the quantum numbers associated with an energy state. All s orbitals have l m 0, but the value of n can vary. S Orbital Versus P Orbital While orbital numbers (e.g., n 1, 2, 3) indicate the energy level of an electron, the letters (s, p, d, f) describe the orbital shape. The s orbital is a sphere around the atomic nucleus. Within the sphere there are shells in which an electron is more likely to be found at any given time. The smallest sphere is 1s. The 2s orbital is larger than 1s; the 3s orbital is larger than 2s. The p orbital has a dumbell shape and is oriented in a particular direction. At any one energy level, there are three equivalent p orbitals that point at right angles to each other (px, py, pz). As with the s orbital, the p orbital describes a region in space around the nucleus in which an electron may be found with the highest probability.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Business Thank You Letter How To Updated November, 2014 - Thanks to Leslie Harpold for this 6-step process, published in TMN, Oct.1, 2003. Leslie passed away in 2006. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve long admired her writing, and am sad to see it disappearing from the Internet, as her sites have not been renewed after her death. LeslieÃ¢â¬â¢s directions on writing the perfect thank you letter are flawless, and I want to help keep her work published, so here is her essay. I made tiny tweaks to match her instructions to business use. There is a six-point formula to the proper thank-you: Learn it, know it, memorize it Ã¢â¬â and it will never fail you. Having trouble finding the right words to thank your client for the contract or your colleague for the assistance? Should you even bother? Oh, yes, you should. Somewhere in between mom making us sit down with our Disney Stationary and shooting off an email, weÃ¢â¬â¢ve lost touch with the concept of simple thank you notes. Now that weÃ¢â¬â¢re business professionals, sometimes an email just wonÃ¢â¬â¢t do, and more is expected than scratching out Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks for the help, you rock!Ã¢â¬ Grandma might not say anything to you, but trust me: She and her friends are probably at this very moment sighing over how business people today just donÃ¢â¬â¢t have manners. As extra motivation, thank you notes improve the frequency and quality of the help and good will you receive. People like being appreciated, and if they feel you actually notice the nice things they do for you, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re more likely to give an encore performance. Writing a thank you is easier than you remember. Buy good quality plain note cards or plain postcards (yes, postcards are perfectly acceptable), and correct postage. Avoid the pre-inscribed Ã¢â¬ËThank you!Ã¢â¬â¢ cards in loopy script, as there are times youÃ¢â¬â¢ll want to write notes where that aesthetic feels wrong. Tip: Stay away from full-size sheets- note cards are best, as your message will be brief, and would look lost swimming around on a page that large. Use your printer to customize your plain paper with your name and address, for a more formal look, if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to invest in personalized business stationary. 1. Greet the Giver Dear David: ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s the easy part, but youÃ¢â¬â¢d be surprised how many people forget it. Dale Carnegie taught us people love to hear their own names and Direct Marketing is sure we also love to read them in ink. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s right, ink. Blue-black is always the number-one choice, but black will suffice in a pinch. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t let a whimsical marker color be the most stunning part of your note: instead let the words sing without the amplification of rainbow hues. Even if your handwriting is poor, you should still hand-write your notes. 2. Express Your Gratitude Thank you for your help with our corporate community service project. Thank you for your invaluable advice with my departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s annual goals. Thank you for your business. This first paragraph seems like it would be the easiest, but it is actually the most complicated. Beware the just writing trap. You are not Ã¢â¬Å"just writing to sayÃ¢â¬ as in I am just writing to say; thatÃ¢â¬â¢s stating the obvious.If the giver is reading, clearly you have already written. Therefore use the present-perfect tense. Also, never directly mention money if you are thankful for a donation. Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you for the one hundred dollar donationÃ¢â¬ could instead be Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you for your generosity.Ã¢â¬ All cash denominations become Ã¢â¬Å"your generosityÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"your kindness.Ã¢â¬ DonÃ¢â¬â¢t worry if it sounds too simple; the point of writing the note is to create a simple expression of a heartfelt sentiment. 3. Discuss Use Your donation will add to ABCÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to support 1500 meals at the community shelter. Your advice enabled me to see through the obstacles, and clearly outline my expectations for our productivity this year to my team. We will contact everyone in your team and present the health programs available to them. 4. Mention the Past, Allude to the Future It was great to work with you at the fundraiser, and I hope to see you at the community service dinner in May. Your leadership has long guided me, and I continue to learn from your skill mentoring and supporting your team. IÃ¢â¬â¢m grateful for our long working relationship, and eager to support this new project for ABC Corporation. 5. Grace Thanks again for your donation. Thanks again for your advice. Thanks again for the opportunity to work with you. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not overkill to say thanks again. So, yes, say it. 6. Regards Best regards, Karen Simply wrap it up. Use whatever closing works for you and your business relationship: Kind regards, Yours truly, Sincerely. Then sign your name and youÃ¢â¬â¢re done. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Not There Any news about your personal or business life. This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the time to boast about your new project, promotion, or bonus. The thank you is exclusively about thanking somebody for their kindness or assistance. While you may want more than anything to show them you amounted to something, this is not the forum. Save that for your annual holiday letter. Now mail it promptly. Even if your business colleagues arenÃ¢â¬â¢t of the note-writing variety, be the one who sets the precedent. Thank you note writing is one of the loveliest traditions to have been compromised by the information age, and sending well written thanks is a great opportunity for you to stand out.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Qatar sporting legacy - Essay Example Qatar in a bid to bring out some probable strengths, weaknesses and challenges that characterize the Qatar environment in relation to hosting the FIFA 2022 World Cup. Political: The political aspect of PESTEL analysis evaluates the impact of government policy on a particular business undertaking. Sporting activities of the stature of the FIFA World Cup require the consideration of political stability primarily for security of both the players and the fans, and to ensure that the activities proceed with no interference. Qatar has enjoyed a rather stable political stability. Qatar gained independence from the British in 1976 and has not experienced any major political conflict from within or with the surrounding neighbors Saudi Arabia and Bahrain except for the coup attempt in 1996. The coup attempt surprisingly consolidated the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity after its failure (Cordesman 2007, p.148). The only political threat in Qatar is an uprising similar to the uprisings observed in the other Arab countries such as Tunisia, Libya and Egypt. Before the revolution, Libya was among the key contenders to host the African Cup of Nations 2012. The revolution made it impossible (Gonzalez 2008, p.36). Such an occurrence in Oman or even the probability of such an occurrence might drive away potential organizers of a sporting event and sports tourists for security reasons. Qatar is relatively a religious tolerant country in the region and this tolerance has drawn frowns from Muslim extremists in the regio n who might want to retaliate. In 2007, Qatar allowed for the construction of the first Christian, Hindu and Muslim Churches in the country. However, since 2007 the country has not faced major violent oppositions which imply that the country can still survive as a tolerant country in the midst of extremists. Currently, the government of Qatar has taken significant steps to market the country as a tourism destination and it is obvious that the government will welcome a move
Friday, November 1, 2019
How does the Film 'North by Northwest' Convey Espionage from the 1950's - Essay Example The two powers never had direct military action, but the period contained sets of high tension crises and race for supremacy. The Cold War era affected the culture of the US. Soldiers who served in the World War II returned home and started new lives and families. They started new businesses and the trade expanded along with job opportunities. The 1950s witnessed major events that was a huge leap and changed our culture and lifestyle. President Harry Truman approved production of the Hydrogen Bomb. 1951 saw the introduction of television and in 1958 the US launched its first satellite Explorer I. National Airlines started domestic passenger flights in 1958. These are major developments in a decade and have affected our culture and society. These were baby steps and foundation of events that led US to supremacy in culture, economy and military as well. The atomic explosions in the 1950s demonstrated power of the US and the Soviet Union and the events were the cause of escalation of th e Cold War. The decade included the Korean War and the beginning of the space race. Along with these developments intelligence gathering accelerated and espionage activities increased. The decade was very active and it had profound effects on the culture as well. The culture of the time is fairly represented by the films. The paper, however, is aimed at studying the culture of the decade along with examination of Alfred HitchcockÃ¢â¬â¢s film North by Northwest in context with the espionage activities at the time. Before examining the film in detail, it is necessary to give a brief plot along with introduction to characters. Alfred Hitchcock Alfred Hitchcock was an English born film director. His films usually centered on murder or espionage, with deception and chase sequences. Mistaken identity was common in his films. An innocent man wrongly accused of crime or espionage was a theme in many of his films. His greatest strength was his expertise in building and maintaining suspense . He used very elaborate with editing techniques and used camera viewpoints for his visual effects. The soundtracks were carefully chosen and edited.1 His thrillers maintained reality and believability which was different than other spy films of the time. Alfred Hitchcock was the main spy film director who made this genre popular in the 1930s. The Cold War era increased desire of audiences to see spy thrillers and the 1950s saw a major growth in this genre. Alfred Hitchcock made many of the spy films in the decade and depicted the espionage activities along with culture. Government operations along with operational style and activities of intelligence agencies were shown in the films. Spies and their work were mostly fiction but the films gave audiences an insight into the profession. Furthermore, the Cold War saw an increase in real world espionage activities and the intelligence agencies were very active at the time. The films, especially by Alfred Hitchcock came close to depictin g real world scenarios in espionage and were liked by audience for being suspense spy thrillers. North by Northwest Ã¢â¬Å"North by NorthwestÃ¢â¬ was a Cold War spy story released in the year 1959 by Alfred Hitchcock. The cast included Cary Grant, Eva Marie Saint and James Mason. The filmÃ¢â¬â¢s theme is of mistaken identity with an innocent man chased by an unknown organization. The main theme of this motion picture is espionage activity and shows some insight into government intelligence agen