Saturday, August 31, 2019

Reform Attempts of Farmers and Workers

Life in the late nineteenth and in the early twentieth century in the United States was rough for the average person because of the poor conditions and inability to get ahead of debts and poverty. Two major groups that suffered the most were labor workers and farmers. For the workers in factories, the industrial expansion of the nation brought many changes to the workplace. These changes made life as a labor worker more dangerous and less profitable. Farmers also faced many problems such as high railroad rates and high loan interest rates. Both groups searched for ways to band together with people in similar situations to help resolve some of the problems. After many failing attempts, a movement called Progressivism caused many changes and greatly improved life for farmers, labor workers, and many other groups of the early 20th century. In the late nineteenth century, people flooded to cities to fill the positions of factory workers. Some of the people were farmers who had grown tired of constant debt and looked to the city for economic gain. Others were immigrants from other countries who left their homeland behind to find a better life. Many of these people had nowhere to go, so they followed their first instinct and moved to the cities to find work. This flood of people caused a huge surplus of labor workers, thus resulting in unsafe work conditions and low wages for those with jobs. The dawn of the factory reduced the need for skilled workers, making the tasks easy enough for a small child to perform. With this idea, factory owners hired women and children to operate their machines and paid them even less then the underpaid men. Obviously these people could not live like this, so they began to form unions in an attempt to fix some of the problems in the work place. The first major attempt at a large union to crack down on some of the problems which faced workers was The Knights of Labor. Membership was open to a very wide range including almost all workers and women. Their leaders fought for a shorter workday and removal of children from the workplace. A second attempt called the American Federation of Labor restricted membership to skilled workers. Their goals were to improve wages, numbers of hours in a workday, and working conditions. One of the most famous strikes was the Pullman Strike which involved the American Railway Union and Pullman Company workers. It was sparked by a twenty-five percent wage cut to employees. This strike consisting of a few thousand workers caused a halt in trains from Chicago to the west coast. These responses to the problems of the workplace not only expressed their discontent, but also forced their employers into changes in administration. A second group that had large problems in the early 20th century were farm owners. One major problem was the rates charged by the railroad to farmers. Since farmers depended so greatly on the railroad, railroads companies could charge almost whatever they wanted. The result was widespread debt and poverty for farmers. Other uncontrollable factors such as bad weather and overproduction hurt farming as well. The first major attempt to organize to urge changes in the nation was called the Nation Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry. This organization attempted to teach smaller farmers techniques to make their fields more productive. After farm prices plummeted as result of a depression, the organization began to work politically to help control farm prices. As result many states placed strict restrictions on railroads to regulate rates and operations. The courts put a stop to the legislation and sent the railroad prices back up. The second attempt was the farmers alliance which setup stores and other facilities for their fellow farming members to use. This partially removed the ‘middleman' from stealing a portion of the profits. Although this was more widespread than the Grange, the system was too strong to allow these alliance groups. A movement known as Populism, which urged changes to aid farmers, formed. Many of the views of the populist movement were adopted by the more popular and successful reform movement known as Progressivism. In the early years of the 20th century, a powerful reform movement called Progressivism swept the country. Its leaders were college professors, ministers, journalists, physicians and social workers. Their goal was to improve conditions for all Americans. They wanted to make the political system more egalitarian. They also wanted to make the nation's economic system more democratic. They felt that the people who owned the nations resources, should share some of their wealth with the less fortunate. The movement appealed to farmers, small businessmen, women and laborers. They were alarmed by the growing use of court rulings to halt strikes. In 1890, for example, Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act. Its purpose was to punish big business corporations that combined to prevent competition. Yet more and more it was being used as a weapon against unions. The Progressives were unhappy about the use of federal troops and state militia against strikers. They were outraged by inhuman conditions in factories and mines. The Progressives and the AFL pressured state governments for laws to protect wage earners. Almost all states passed laws forbidding the employment of children under 14 years old. Many states also set a lower maximum work week for their employees. One program designed to help farmers and labor workers was the ICC or Interstate Commerce Commission, which struck down on railroad companies and their unfair practices. This greatly helped farmers earn the proper wages for their crops. Today, despite the decline in members, organized labor in the United States remains strong and conditions of America's labor force have steadily improved. The length of the work day has been shortened. Many agreements between employers and wage earners now call for less than 40 hours of work a week. Most agreements have generous â€Å"fringe† benefits. These include insurance, pensions and health care plans. As the number of union members has decreased as a percentage of the total work force, unions have responded by broadening their organizing efforts to include employees of federal, state and local governments as well as other professionals. Organizers have also waged long campaigns to unionize and win better conditions for such diverse groups as public school teachers and seasonal farm workers. As the work force has changed, so have some of the labor-management issues. Unions now want laws to strengthen their right to strike by prohibiting companies from hiring permanent replacements for striking workers. Employers want the right to test workers for drug use. Many workers are fighting for the right to take unpaid leave when they have babies or when a family member is ill and needs extensive care. And, as the unemployment rate has climbed there is growing belief that the government should help create jobs through public works programs, job training programs and tax credits for employers in areas of high unemployment.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Culture and Care Value Base Essay

In this assignment I am going to examine and explain my own personal values and principles influence my own work in professional practice. I will compare my principles and values with the Northern Ireland Social Care Council codes of practice and the Care Value Base. The NISCC and the Care Value Base have many similar codes of practice which all health and social care practitioners should adhere by and work with. The values I feel that are relevant within my experience of healthcare and within my current placement are confidentiality, dignity and respect, effective communication, anti-discriminatory practice and culture and beliefs. In researching NISCC codes of practice and the Care Value Base, I have found that their values are also similar to my own values within my care practice. The first value I am going to discuss is confidentiality. According to the Care Value Base maintaining confidentiality of information is an important part of caring. Any information clients give is private and confidential. Individuals need to be aware of what they say to other carers and clients and also who have access to client files. Previously undergoing work experience in the stroke ward I found that all patients’ medical information is on a clipboard on the front of their bed, anyone could read this information, I feel the patient’s confidentiality is  being breached. During my work placement at Ceara School, I observed that each pupil has individual care folders within school; these are kept in a secure filling cabinet and only the members of staff who are looking after a particular pupil is allowed access, I feel this is very good practice to uphold confidentiality. Within my placement I feel my values would be similar to the Care Value base, if a service user informed me of private information I would keep it to myself to build trust and confidence unless the individual or others were at harm. The second value that I feel is most important and relevant to my experience and work placement is effective communication. According to NISCC, one of their codes of practice is to communication in an appropriate, open, accurate and straightforward way. Within my work placement you have to have recognition and respect of the pupil’s opinions and ideas so they gain confidence within you and be more comfortable to talk. You also have to talk respectfully and use a lot of humor and creativity to keep them interested. On a regular basis there are group conversations and also one to one conversations, simple language is used that is easily understood and additionally open questions are applied to develop the conversation. With having previous work experience in Craigavon Area Hospital I have learnt the importance of communication. Many doctors used jargonistic terms, which can be very hard for patients to understand, I consider this to be ineffective communication. I feel my values are comparable to those of the Northern Ireland Social Care Council. I think that my value of communication within my work placement will come across positively. While in placement I make the speaker feel heard and understood, I make sure to create an environment where pupils feel safe to express ideas opinions and feelings. I keep suitable eye contact and show interest in what is being said and sure my posture is open and inviting. The Care Value Base deems that it is important to acknowledge an individuals personal beliefs and identity. The NISCC feel that respective diversity and different cultures and values are very significant and can have extensive affects on a persons care. I went to an integrated secondary school with many cultures and religions. I took part in a multi-cultural day in school, I got to see other communities and cultures and what they believed in, this widened my views and changed my opinions of different religions. While in Craigavon Area Hospital completing work experience I learned that meals and meal times were very important in some religions and culture. Some individuals were vegetarian; I had to be very respectable of their culture and identity. They were supplied with a different menu with different foods that they could choose this promotes the right of choice and independence. Before my work placement commenced I hoped that the employees and pupils had the same value as myself in consideration of different cultures and are open to express their beliefs and identity and be proud of who they are. My next value is extremely important in my care practice and that is upheld by NISCC and the Care Value Base is anti-discriminatory practice. Anti-discriminatory practice is action to prevent discrimination against people on the grounds of race, class, gender and disability. Anti-discriminatory practice promotes equality by introducing anti-discriminatory policies in different situations of work. The Care Value Base describes one of their values by promoting anti-discriminatory practice and to protect the individual from abuse. There are many pieces of legislation that are in place to protect individuals from discrimination including the Disability Act 1995, Human Rights Act,  Equality Act 2010 and the Children (Northern Ireland) Order 1995. In my work placement I will work in an anti-discriminatory way, I will not discriminate or judge the service users on their gender, race, class or disability. I believe everyone is different and we all have rights set in place to prevent us from being discriminated against. While undertaking work experience in Craigavon Area Hospital, disabled individuals were protected from discriminatory practice, there were lifts and ramps so all wheel chairs could access the building. There were wide and automatic doors so wheel chairs could get through them with no difficulty, although I feel this is very good practice there was also bad practice within the hospital. I consider individuals with different religions and languages were discriminated against. There were no interpreters for different languages therefore the patients didn’t know what had happened or what was about to happen. I feel my values hinder those of the Care Value Base and I imagine my values will come across positively within my work placement. I feel my personal culture and experience has influenced me in many different ways in supporting users of services and others in health and social care settings. My parents have taught me from a young age to say please and thank you and to be respectful to others. I have grown up knowing these simple values and therefore it has influenced me to show dignity and respect to all service users. Although I am of a Catholic background and practice the Catholic faith, I went to an integrated primary school and secondary school with many different religions and cultures. I now have an understanding of other cultures within health and socials care settings and I am able to accept other religions and their beliefs. I believe this have had a positive influence on my personal culture and experience. When I was in primary school, I met my best friend, he was homosexual. My parents were quite weary of this as they didn’t like the way he dressed and  acted. They came to the terms of his sexual orientation and accepted him; because I have had the privilege of meeting him it has allowed me to open my eyes to all sexual ordinations. When working and supporting users of health and social care service I wouldn’t mind what sexual ordination the service user was, I would not discriminate against them. I would promote and uphold my values to protect them from harm. From experience I know many people have been discriminated on because of their gender. Some individuals will not be chosen for a particular job because they are male/female. Service users are also judged on their sexual ordinations, recently in the news according to Poots, Northern Irelands Health Minister he said that all gay men are not allowed to give blood. I feel this sexual ordination is being discriminated against, it is very bad practice and defeats the purpose of legislation created to protect individuals from this happening. I will promote and uphold my values to protect individuals from being discriminated against. I think a pedophile and a murder would cause a barrier in the care setting I am working in. I have grown up knowing that they are bad from family, friends and the media. This may affect and hinder my work but as I am now aware of this negative point I need to work on this barrier. I can not make an assumption until I work and understand them, until then, I will try not to judge this group. New developments and changes to personal values can have a major impact on working in the Health and Social Care sector. Firstly a new development of mine is starting a new course; I have met new people and got to know them. Working in different practices can impact work in a care setting, partnership can be developed and new skills can be gained. I have started a new placement in Ceara School, I am very excited to see if it is the right area of health and social care I want to do further studying in. I feel this experience can be very education and rewarding. This experience will help me in my future and will give me a good start. I can now see that it is the first time I have looking at my values thoroughly and reflected on them, I  will challenge my values to become a better professional. I feel guest speakers were a new development of mine, they give me an insight into their organisation, and they also give me information on how I could get work experience. New developments and changes to my personal values can benefit the service user. I could reflect more in action rather than later, use communication more effectively and user my initiative in different situations. To conclude I believe that personal values is very significant in influencing my own work in the health and social care sector. I have found that my values are similar to the values of the Care Value Base and the Northern Ireland Social Care Council. I have found that there is legislation to protect individuals from unconfidentiality and anti-discriminatory practice also to promote dignity and respect, effective communication and culture and beliefs. I have also explored my new developments and what changes I could make to my personal values to create more effective and efficient care.

Personal Philosophy of Classroom Management Essay

Classroom Management is an essential element in implementing a successful learning environment for students. A teacher who implements a classroom management plan will control student’s misbehavior so that all students will be focused on the lessons being taught in the classroom. Below is an annotated list of points that I believe in concerning my view of classroom management. 1. How teacher should act: * Enthusiastic- A teacher should show enthusiasm when she is teaching the lessons. The teacher needs to show that she is excited about teaching the lessons so that the students will stay interested in listening and understanding the subject area content. * Respectful- The teacher should treat students with respect and also demand respect. She should never use fowl language, inappropriate behavior, share too much personal information or act in ways that are not ethical. * Role Model- A teacher should act as a role model to her students. The teacher should not do anything that would jeopardize her career as a teacher that would make her students look down upon her. She also must live a life that students look up to so they will remember that teacher forever. * Patiently- A teacher must exhibit patience in class. Every student learns at different paces and at different levels. A teacher must be willing to be patient if the students are not grasping the information. She should explain the information to the students until they finally understand the lesson 2. How students are expected to behave: * Respectful- Students are to be respectful towards the teacher and to each other. Students should show respect to the teacher by not talking when the teacher is instructing the class. The students should show respect to each other by not hitting each other, making fun of another, or taking one’s personal belongings. * On Task-Students should stay on task in class. Students should be focused on the teacher’s lessons and instructions. They should not be wandering off getting off task. If the students are off task, they will not understand the lessons or remember what happened in class. Also the teacher will have to go back and teach the lesson again which can cause the teacher to be off target teaching the curriculum and it will result in student’s receiving poor test scores. * Appropriately Well Behaved- Students should be well behaved in class. It is important for students to understand the importance of good behavior. If students are well behaved in the classroom, the teacher can spend more time instructing the students than time spent on behavioral issues. In a well behaved classroom, students are able to learn effectively. * Academically Prepared- Students are to come to school academically prepared. The students should complete their homework assignment each day in order to make sure they understand the subjects that are being taught. They should always come prepared to listen to the subject matter, offer their opinions, and ask god questions in class. 3. What the classroom might look and feel like: * Engaging- The classroom should look and feel engaging to the student. In the classroom, the teacher can arrange the classroom that promotes student interaction and group collaboration. Students should be seated in a circle or horseshoe shape that maximizes the amount of eye contact students can have with each other. * Clean and Organized Classroom- A teacher’s classroom should be clean and organized. The school supplies should be neatly organized and in a safe place where students can safely access the supplies. * Filled with student’s work- The classroom should be filled with student’s work on projects. The students will feel comfortable and engaged if what they are learning in class will be showcased in the classroom. The student can look around the room and be reminded to always do their best on their assignments. This also sends a message to students that their work and learning is important. * Student Centered – The classroom should be focused on the students. In the student centered classroom, you will find workstations that promote group activities such as puzzles or brainteasers that promote student collaboration. 4. How the teacher helps students conduct themselves properly: * Demonstrating the Rules- The teacher should teach, review, and practice rules form beginning of school till the end of school. The teacher should also let students demonstrate good behaviors and bad behaviors so that students will understand how to follow the rules and to have good behavior in class. * Reinforce positive behavior with Incentives- A teacher can help students conduct themselves properly by providing incentives through positive behavior. A student who exhibits positive behavior weekly will pick a price out of the treasure chest. This will result in students with bad behavior to act better if they see students winning cool prizes. * Student and Parent Contracts- To ensure students are behaving properly, student and parent contracts are sent home for parents and students to sign. This contract outlines what is expected from the student’s behavior, academics, and the parent’s commitment in the child’s education. This will be very helpful in helping the students have good behavior in class. * Character Education Mini Lessons tied to Curriculum- Teachers can tie in the classroom rules and good behavioral skills as mini-lessons. Before teaching the lessons, the teacher can discuss how to treat others, how to walk quietly in the halls, and do not talk while others are talking. By having these mini lessons on how students should behave will remind them of how to have good behavior in class. 5. What the teacher should do about misbehavior: * Cues- Teachers uses a cue or a simple verbal reprimand to redirect a student’s focus which eliminates the inappropriate behavior. A teacher can also praise the efforts of students with good behavior which can reduce the misbehavior among the other students. * Consequences such as loss of recess- If a student keeps misbehaving, the teacher can use the consequence of loss recess. The majority of students like to go to recess. If the student knows their punishment by loss of recess due to their misbehavior, their behavior will improve. * Private conference with student- If the student still misbehaves, the teacher will need to talk with the student. The teacher will inform the student that his or her misbehavior will not be tolerated in class and his or her parents will be contacted if the misbehavior continues. * Contact parent- A teacher should contact the parents if the student keeps misbehaving in class. If the teacher lets the parents know how their child behaves in class, then the parents can also talk to the child and discipline them at home. 6. How students should be taught and what is expected of them: * Post rules in the classroom- Teachers can post rules in the classroom so that students can be reminded each day of how to properly behave in class. Also the teacher can give quizzes to students about the poster rules throughout the year. * Clear articulation and communication in the syllabus- Teachers should communicate clearly about what is expected of student’s assignments and their behavior in class. For example, informing students to always do their best on their work or their handwriting must be neat on all of their assignments should be clearly communicated. Creating a syllabus will also inform students of when their assignments are due.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Decisions in Paradise Part II Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Decisions in Paradise Part II - Research Paper Example The current investigation looks at applications and solutions in reference to the case, focusing on specific steps in the Step- ladder method of decision-making. The situation we face in the organization, with my partners, is one in which the company must be careful about its expansion into Kava. Since our company is considering Kava seriously as a location of interest and heightened presence, â€Å"That greater presence could take various forms, based on what’s good for our company and what’s good for the people of Kava. You and I get the chance to analyze, synthesize, and prescribe regarding that decision† (Case, 2009). It is important to remember that what we are doing is going into a new territory. We need to leave some of our assumptions about dominance and leadership behind, and be more collaborative, if we are going to be respected in this new territory. The Step Ladder method of decision-making can help us in Kava, because it equalizes decisions and makes sure that there is full contribution and teamwork among interested parties. â€Å"This results in a wider variety of ideas, it prevents people from "hiding" within the group, and it helps people avoid being "stepped on" or overpowered by stronger, louder group members† (Stepladder, 2009). One of the main problems addressed in the proposed expansion of our company, is that of seeing how the Step- ladder method affects decision-making in organizations. Leaders can creatively help along the team dynamic by making decisions, in defining what they do. There may be a period of quality assessment in which management leaders may discuss various ways in which to help team players feel an increasing sense of motivation and the drive to succeed in a positive context by helping leaders with feedback and taking the initiative to present new ideas. The Stepladder method stresses that a r elaxed and balanced atmosphere is

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Babylon under Hammurabis law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Babylon under Hammurabis law - Essay Example Babylonians started ruling over Sumer in 1900 BC. Hammurabi, the king of Babylon led his armies to occupy Mesopotamia and build an empire there. As the supreme ruler, Hammurabi established a set of rules of conduct for the Babylonians. The laws of Hammurabi were written in cuneiform and encrypted on stone, stating exactly how the Babylonian society was to behave. Lewis (pp.18) sates, â€Å"the code is engraved in cuneiform writing on a seven-foot tall black stone pillar†¦Ã¢â‚¬  This discussion is going to focus on the laws of Hammurabi concerning marriage, divorce, adultery, inheritance, and life in Babylon in general. According to Hammurabi’s code, marriage was considered a contract between a man and a woman. Marriages were organized by parents and other relatives for their children, with the bride-groom’s parents obligated to pay bride price to the girl’s family. This type of marriage arrangement sounds authoritative since the lovers did have any say in their own marriage. Parents were in complete control of their children’s lives and marriages were not based on love or mutual agreement on the part of the ones getting married. This is very unfair, since a person would be forced to marry a person they did not want for a partner. Divorce was handled very differently for men and women. Whereas men were allowed to divorce their wives at will, wives were only permitted to separate from their husbands on grounds of neglect or cruelty.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Digital technologhy plays a key role in eduction Essay

Digital technologhy plays a key role in eduction - Essay Example It is also argued that digital technology has the potential to support socio-cultural forms of not only ‘situated learning’, but also the associated perception of ‘communities of practice’ (Selwyn 2014). Some educators also argue that digital technology has the potential to support ‘progressive’ which are non-authoritarian forms of engagement in education. The progressive educational engagement include child-centred learning as well as open forms of teaching which advocates meaning making and interpretation in addition to encouraging learner autonomy as well as dispersal of power. Educational technologies are also believed to play a significant role in not only improving, but also transforming schooling (Gouseti 2014). It has the potential to transform â€Å"teaching and learning into an engaging and active process connected to real life† (Gouseti 2014, p. 37). Digital technology also prepares learners for future workplace. Despite digital technology being associated with many contributions to education, it is also evident that it can result to displacement of educational institutions. Digital technology cans also lead to the displacement of teachers in schools. Additionally, it is argued that the use of digital technology can result to partial reconfiguration of educational institutions (Selwyn 2011). Students also use digital technology inappropriately in school environments. However, it is good to know the integral role of a teacher in education as well as learning whether in technology-based or not in order to ascertain if technology use in education will lead to displacement of the teacher. Additionally, I think it is good for one to know more about ‘blended learning’. Understanding this will enable one associate role of the educational institution with use of digital technology. Armstrong, J 2014, BC High Students Punished For

Monday, August 26, 2019

Thunder Heart Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 3

Thunder Heart - Essay Example Whose City†. The effects of social networking in urban environments for young adults, like the ones seen in the film, can have negative results attributed to them, especially in urban neighborhoods. As seen in the film, young adults would go out to neighborhood hangouts, like a bar or club, to meet people and dance. Such activities can be fun but also be misleading. As seen in the movie, the two young ladies, Maria and Blanca, went to a club just to dance and hangout. They happen to meet some guys who appear to be harmless and a friendship arises. As the friends begin to see each other more often they begin to learn more about one another. This is where misleading networking plays a role. One of the guys met at the bar happens to have associates within a drug ring and is tied to drug smuggling. Soon after, Maria and Blanca become smugglers for their new friends associates. Had the two girls not tried to network with others at the bar they might have evaded this ultimate outcome. Therefore, the n egative effect of social networking in these kinds environments is that people may seem to be one thing but are something quite different. In areas where drug trade is openly visible and common, like the setting in Columbia, social networking can be dangerous. This danger can also be associated in context with control of the urban cities. The danger associated to urban cities is the means of one’s sacrifices for survival. In deprived cities, like the one in the film, money is the most admired commodity. In areas where plantations and industries thrive, workers and laborers certainly do not share the profits attained by these businesses. Workers wages do not meet the bar for providing for their family and ones own personal needs therefore the danger of the drug trade looms. Drug distribution is highly recognized and sought after due to the large

Sunday, August 25, 2019

COMMERCIAL LAW Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

COMMERCIAL LAW - Essay Example In an effort to combat terrorism, the UK has introduced laws to punish perpetrators of these activities. Under the law, the principal terrorist offences are outlined. Under section 15 of the terrorism Act2, it is deemed an offence to get involved in a fundraising with prior information that the funds raised or property used for that matter may be used for terrorism activities. It is considered an offence to possess or use money or property for terrorist activities with reasonable cause to suspect such is used for the activities. The act further states that it is an offence to be involved in any arrangement that makes money or property to another party with knowledge or reasonable cause to have suspicion that it supports acts of terrorism. Finally the act clearly stipulates that it is an offence to be involved or concerned in arrangements that facilitate the control of terrorist property by or on behalf of a different person3. These laws have been effective in curtailing terrorism fin ancing in the UK. The discussion above clearly brings out the measures and their effectiveness in fighting the global vice. It is a measure that has been adopted across the world to combat and end terrorist activities. In conclusion therefore, it is prudent that states emulate the policies and laws enacted by the UK to fight terrorism financing. Being a global phenomenon, it is vital that other countries join the fight and come up with tighter legislations that will improve security for everyone around the world. Terrorism activities cause harm and instill fear to the general populace. Above all it causes death and punitive measures in form of legislation need to be adopted and effected. 1FH Newark, ‘The Boundaries of Nuisance’ (1949) 65 LQR 480; Richard Kidner, ‘Nuisance and Rights of Property’ [1998] Conv 267; Ken Oliphant,

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Gulf Air Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Gulf Air - Case Study Example Assets of the gulf air company have become manifold as compared to the time it started its business. (Gulf Air Official Website, 2010) The history of Gulf aviation relates back to the 1940s when a British pilot and entrepreneur named Freddie Bosworth started a company with the aim of providing air taxi services to the local customers and to the businesses. For ten years he was carrying on with the company with his small fleet of aircrafts and at the end of first quarter of 1950 he transformed his business into a private shareholding company with the name of Gulf Aviation. Therefore, it can be regarded as one of the oldest air carriers performing operations in the Middle East. After some time in 1951, the founder of the company died and it was all set to be sold to the big guns of the aviation industry. (Gulf Air Official Website, 2010) In the month of October of the year 1951 British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) acquired a 22% stake in the Gulf Aviation and therefore became a major share holder in the company. After the purchase of stake of the Gulf Aviation by British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) some of the updated and technologically advanced aircrafts were added to the fleet of the company as well as the company started its services to London city. Year 1973 is regarded as the most important year in the his... Thus by the acquisition of the shares of the company Gulf air became the national carrier of those four countries in the Persian Gulf. Moving further along the line in the same year, Gulf aviation achieved another land mark with the establishment of the subsidiary company of Gulf Helicopters. In the 1980s an increase in the trend of travelling by air was seemed in the world and the air travel was seemed to be the best commuting route in the world. With this opportunity Gulf airways also cashed in to make the best out of the bargain. It was the time of some real growth for the company and the company made the best out of the available opportunities. In the year 1981 Gulf Air became an IATA member and in the following year, it became the first International airline to land at Riyadh. With the progress of the company more and more aircrafts were also being added to the fleet of the company and in the year 1988 Boeing 767s were added to the fleet of the company and with the addition of Boeing 767s more services were offered to different customers of the different destinations. Gulf air also has the prestige of being the first Arab airline to fly directly to the continent of Australia. In the year 1994 Gulf air started receiving the airbus aircrafts and in the year 2000 took t he delivery of all of the remaining airbus aircrafts. In the meanwhile gulf air extended its services to the other parts of the world and the procedure of expansion did not stop. In the 1990s gulf air was down on profits and was not performing well as a corporate entity when the reign of the fleet and resources of gulf air was held in the hands of a newly appointed CEO of the company. In the year 2002 Mr. James Hogan became the president

Friday, August 23, 2019

Natural Resources, Conflict, and Conflict Resolution Research Paper

Natural Resources, Conflict, and Conflict Resolution - Research Paper Example This theoretical argument is very clear and appropriate for this paper. It specifies important aspects of the issue which render explanations and foundations for discussion. This theoretical argument help sets the tone for the rest of the discussion as it bears to mind the direction of the politics as it unfolds in the Chad. In order to tentatively answer the issue raised in this paper, the author raised different possible mechanisms which apply to the paper. In applying such possibilities to the study, the author considered the possibility that econometric work can only create correlations and that qualitative work is needed in order to identify the mechanisms which are underneath these correlations (Humphrey, 2005). It is difficult to evaluate whether the author meant this statement as a hypothesis or a tentative consideration for the problem/issue which was raised. Nevertheless, the statement presents a possible direction for the discussion to take in terms of answering the issues raised by the research study. The study also mentions six possible mechanisms which explain the relationship between war or conflict and resources. These mechanisms include: greedy rebels mechanism, greedy outsiders mechanism, grievance mechanism, feasibility mechanism, weak states mechanism, sparse networks mechanism (Humph rey, 2005). These mechanisms have been laid out as tentative considerations for this research. They help lay out possible directions for research in terms of impact on war/conflict as impacted by resources. For purposes of this study, the researcher chose the rebel greed mechanism as a means of explaining the issue topic of this discussion (Humphrey, 2005). This mechanism was chosen based on its applicability to the points raised during the analysis of Chad. In this mechanism, domestic groups are seen to engage in quasi-criminal activities in order to benefit from resources independent from the state. To some extent, these rebels seek power through these resources; and they want to further their ends by seeking

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Commercial Practice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Commercial Practice - Essay Example Generally in most cases, there are certain three distinct states that can generally require the usage of a quantitative model. In a case where we are unable to observe such a stipulation not being contented then every model that is being considered will have to be forced to ascribe mathematical values for the incompetent characteristics or attitudes , that can ultimately guide to distortions in several conclusions that are consequently obtained from each of the models Still, wherever all of the significant issues are quantified, there can exist other issues those that are linked with the information and data that may prevent the exploitation of a quantitative model. If for instance the specific data are undependable or in some cases are exceedingly pricey in terms of the time it may require to be collected in or the funds it would cost to assemble, then in the above cases the use of a quantitative model might not be appropriate feasible. 2. The rationale ought to rivet a certain intensity of prejudice or delineation which can only be attained through certain specific mathematical and quantitative comparisons. Some examples of these maybe : It is said by researchers and analysts that if the chief rationale seems to be achievable devoid of the use of a certain specific quantitative model, it is then advised to inquire about the response in a non-quantitative manner. The rationale behind this being, the fact that the utter intricacy and information congregation essential for nearly all of the quantitative models know how to be factually reasonable if it is vital. 3. An occurrence wherein the scheme of significance encompasses an important amount of responses on the intensity of aggregation necessary. This is most commonly a situation wherein the behavior and effect of a certain variable X tends to affect a certain variable Y, and vice versa. If we observe all the definitions of almost all the quantitative models that exist, we would be able to comprehend the fact that in some cases they would not be required to evaluate the response. On the other hand if the performance of the aim is seemingly directly proportional or directly related to the feedback it would be advisable to use a certain quantitative model for the purpose1. Most of the Quantitative models are based on the assumptions that are simple and not too intricate at all. It is also observed that most of the most quantitative funds managers hold on to the ground rules of contemporary group theory. The fundamental concepts of this issue consist of the capital asset pricing model also famously known as the CAPM model , the Central Value Theory by the famous Graham & Dodd who also named the model after them , the

Losing Common Sense in a Sea of Technology Essay Example for Free

Losing Common Sense in a Sea of Technology Essay Technology has made miracles take place. Technology is an asset to our society. Things we could not do with our anatomical brains we can conjure up with a machine. With the answers to simple questions at fingertips with the availability of the internet, simple thought processes replaced with instant gratification. Critical thinking is almost extinct due to rapid response internet websites and databases. In today’s society, we depend on computers and technology to dictate schedules, lead meetings, and manage social lives. Therefore, ruing personal bonds, destroying critical and creative thinking, and losing common sense. The introduction of technology and computers on society has been beneficial in many areas, science having the biggest impact. For example, new radar technology will allow forecasters to see extreme weather, as will potential improvements to satellite technology, as well as computer models that run on powerful super computers. With these radars improved, more lives saved. â€Å"This will allow us to get to cover faster and be better prepared† (Lubchenco, Hayes 68). Another example of how technology has been beneficial to our society is in the medical field. Today many surgeries perform with the help of robots. Robotically assisted cardiac surgery presents less invasive than conventional surgery, with shortened hospital stays and faster return to daily activities (Krueger, Jones, Howell, etal. ) The largest benefit of technology is the easy and fast access that has come from the Internet. Almost any subject matter, research papers, and technical documents are available to anyone. Communication has also become much simpler using the Internet. Computers and the internet has become a staple in the American home. Not only are Americans conforming to an E-society, the rest of the world is too. This intention of this paper is not to discourage technology. Technology has done the unimaginable in societies here and abroad, perhaps technology has done too much. As we advance in the small gadgets and upgrade our systems to use the latest software, it is safe to say, we have become â€Å"addicted†. Because of this â€Å"addiction† or dependency on technology and computers, more and more people are flooding to their P. D. A’s or to their laptops to do simple everyday tasks; we should know how to do already. Anything from grocery shopping, booking a plane flight, depositing a paycheck, can be done over the internet from a personal computer, cell phone, or I Pad. Life as we know it is becoming a virtual reality within itself. We focus our addenda’s and our itineraries based around technology. Despite the positive impact technology has made on education, there are certainly areas that it poorly used. â€Å"The uncontrolled use of technology without examining its long-term benefits and potential problems is not something that should be allowed to happen in education. (Hodorowicz) For example, more and more often universities are moving toward â€Å"distant learning†, or online classes. â€Å"Nothing can replace the interactions between students and teachers. Once the process of learning from a fellow person has been automated to something mechanical many things will be lost† (Hodorowicz). Furthermore, automated grading loses the ability to see just where a student went wrong, or what the student was trying to achieve in an answer. Online courses remove the ability to deal with truly great teachers in a personal way, and it removes the ability to interact with other students. Automated education also hinders getting help when needed. It has been noted that with the use of computers and technology â€Å"education will no longer be an unpredictable and exciting adventure in human enlightenment, but an exercise in conformity and an apprenticeship to whatever gadgetry is useful in a technical world† (Schwarz). Technology has also been useful inside the home. yet, has been a key factor in the decline of stable, social relationships. Researchers are debating whether the Internet is improving or harming participation in community life and social relationships. This research examined the social and psychological impact of the Internet on 169 people in 73 households during their first 1 to 2 years on-line. We used longitudinal data to examine the effects of the Internet on social involvement and psychological well-being. In this sample, the Internet was used extensively for communication. Nonetheless, greater use of the Internet was associated with declines in participants communication with family members in the household, declines in the size of their social circle, and increases in their depression and loneliness (Kraut, Patterson,Keisler,etal. . Virtual communities are becoming an ever-growing normality. With the social networks like Facebook and twitter comes the anonymous predators. † The Internet is populated by people with false identities, people with inaccurate information, people who express themselves quickly and with little reflection or sense of accountability† (Schwarz). New frauds and ill opportunities to drain ba nk accounts emerge daily; just an example of how we are coming adapt to the cyber world with our eyes wide open. We are losing what it means to be human and the morals that were once instilled. As stated earlier in this paper, this is not a paper of whether technology in our world today is right or wrong. This is a paper proving how our ethical values and use of common knowledge are becoming extinct because we allow computers to think for us. We are losing creativity to think â€Å"outside the box† with our learning becoming more of a mathematical equation than an experience. Relying too much on technology is what will lead to the extinction of man, maybe not of a species, but of an individual, rather than random avitar. Works Cited Schwarz, Gretchen.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Analysis of Sunfeast Cookies

Analysis of Sunfeast Cookies EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The main objective of the report is to comply to the various marketing theories that has been prevailing in the market and get a proper understanding of the real market. With the help of the ITC Sunfeast various functions and strategies were being discussed and discussed in respect to policies and path they have followed since they have been a successful player in the market. The consumer insight is studied to get a sense of various needs, demands and mind set of them. This is done with the help of questioning people at different places so that there is a glimpse of their buying pattern. The people interviewed were from different places of Gurgaon. COMPANYS OVERVIEW ITC stands for Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited is an Indian Conglomerate whose market capitalization is of US $14 billion and turnover of over US $ 51 billion. ITC is a largest private cigarette company with a diversified portfolio which comprises of hotels and paperboards, packaging, agri- business, packaged foods, confectionary, branded apparels, greeting cards and FMCG products. Since company has its dealings in almost every sector creating multiple drivers of growth anchored on its time-tested core competencies and its has an unmatched distribution reach, superior brand-building capabilities, effective supply chain management and acknowledged service skills in hoteliering has Over time lead to the strategic forays into new businesses are expected to garner a significant share of these emerging high-growth markets in India. The Foods Division is the most recent diversification of the ITC Group. ITCs decision to enter the foods business is part of a strategic decision to develop new product lines by synergizing its core competencies in building brands, understanding the Indian consumers requirements and its strong distribution network as well as its established culinary expertise. ITCs diversified status originates from its corporate strategy aimed at creating multiple drivers of growth anchored on its time-tested core competencies: unmatched distribution reach, superior brand-building capabilities, effective supply chain management and acknowledged service skills in hoteliering. Over time, the strategic forays into new businesses are expected to garner a significant share of these emerging high-growth markets in India. Brands India Kings, Gold Flake, Scissors, Bristol (cigarettes), ITC-Welcomgroup (hotels), Wills Sport (range of casual wear for men and women), John Players (mens wear), Essenza Di Wills (fragrances), Kitchens of India (Confectionery, staples and snack foods), Aashirvaad (flour), Sunfeast (biscuits), Mangaldeep, VaxLit and Delite (safety matches), Expressions (greeting cards) and Classmates (school note books). This company is rated among the Worlds Best Big Companies by Forbes magazine. ITC ranks third on all major profit parameters among Indias private sector corporations. ITC employs over 20,000 people at more than 60 locations across India. ITC is rated among the Worlds Best Big Companies, Asias Fab 50 and the Worlds Most Reputable Companies by Forbes magazine, among Indias Most Respected Companies by BusinessWorld and among Indias Most Valuable Companies by Business Today. ITC ranks among Indias `10 Most Valuable (Company) Brands, in a study conducted by Brand Finance and published by the Economic Times. ITC also ranks among Asias 50 best performing companies compiled by Business Week. SUNFEAST In July 2003, ITC entered into Biscuits market with the Sunfeast range of Glucose, Marie and cream biscuits. The brand connotes to happiness, contentment, satisfaction and pleasure since its mascot Sunny and slogan spread the smile. In a span of 6 years Sunfeast has launched many new varieties and has its presence in almost all types of biscuit categories. At that time, Britannia and Parle held, between them over 82 per cent of the market in value terms. The rest too was firmly held by smaller players like Priya Gold which had a strong presence in the north. Three years down the line, however, things have changed a lot. It is a classic story of the hare and the tortoise. While it is far from winning the race, slowly and steadily, the tortoise is gaining ground. In foods, biscuits were tempting. The Rs 4,000-crore (Rs billion) Indian biscuits market has grown at 12-14 per cent year-on-year. Then, there was a business synergy. ITC was already value-adding to wheat with its branded atta presence. By entering the biscuits segment, it could also improve its bottom-line further. ITCs Sunfeast has a different story to tell so far. The strategist looks at the game plan of a late entrant and how the biscuits industry has responded. MARKETING ENVIORMENT MACRO ENVIORMENT Developments and implementing marketing plans requires number of decisions. Making those decisions is both an art and science. To provide insight into and inspirations for marketing decision making, companies monitor customer needs and update themselves so that they can continuously adapt to the environment. In 2003 when ITC entered the market there was a organized sector of biscuits which was estimated to be 0.8 million tons with a value of Rs 45 billion and Britannia and Parle were the major competitors. But the company realized that urban India comprising 27% of the population accounts for 44% of biscuit composition that consumers are looking for innovation, variety and fun in the entire biscuit category which other biscuit companies lack. DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIORMENT Since India is diversified and demographically vivid, hence the need is therefore very different. So the company catered the need of every life cycle as there is a product for children and even for elders and also for older people. Hence there is something for everyone and by this ITC dominated the market completely. ECONOMIC ENVIORMENT The available purchasing power in an economy depends on current income, price, saving, debt and credit availability. The company realized the buying potential of the Indian market and accordingly price the biscuits in a way so that it does not push the consumer and the price corresponds to the price of the competitors. So this way the customers will have a value for money as in the same price they will have a new and a better product. Moreover the focus was on the urban population hence the price was not such a matter of importance as the people of this category has high purchasing power. SOCIO-CULTURAL ENVIORNMENT The society shapes the beliefs, values and norms that largely define consumer tastes and preferences. People absorb, almost unconsciously, a world view that defines their relationship to themselves, to other, to other organizations and to society. So ITC launched a product which was in accordance with the beliefs of India as the ingredients contained in the product are those which were generally used by the people and moreover satisfied them and it was in also tune with the changing taste and preferences of the consumers. ITC believes that an effective growth strategy for the nation must address the needs of rural India, home to 75% of the countrys poor. It is imperative to ensure that Indias economic growth is inclusive, embracing its villages, so as to free millions of disadvantaged citizens from the indignity of poverty ENVIORNMENTAL ITCs impact on the environment as a result of its operations mainly concerns three areas: (a) release of greenhouse gases contributing to global warming; (b) consumption of water, both from surface and sub-surface sources, adding to the depletion of freshwater availability; and (c) generation of solid wastes, adding to the non-degradable waste being generated by industry. ITC has been at the vanguard of Indian industrys attempts to minimise its environmental footprints through strategic initiatives in each of these areas of global concern. Global Warming: In order to mitigate the effects of global warming, the Company is following a two-fold strategy: (a) reduce specific energy consumption in its operations through improved technology and processes; and (b) sequester greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, through a large-scale forestry programme. Solid Waste Management: Non-degradable waste is a growing menace adversely affecting the environment. Three plans are in place to reduce solid waste within the Company and make it a zero solid waste company in the next two years. Water Conservation: ITC is mindful of the fact that freshwater in the country is increasingly becoming a valuable resource given that India accounts for 18% of the worlds population but has only 4% of global freshwater resources. MICRO ENVIORNMENT ITCs employment practices are premised on attracting and retaining talent based only on merit. The Company leadership walking the talk and a relentless focus on implementing the policy underlines the Companys approach to employment practices and creating a decent work environment. ITC is committed to employee engagement that upholds individual dignity and respects human rights. High standards of employment and EHS practices enhance the Companys performance, help in the attraction and retention of quality talent, and enhance the equity of the Company as a responsible employer. The primary objective is to nurture a culture of meritocracy amongst a committed and enthusiastic workforce from diverse backgrounds. The organizational structure is as follows:- DISTRICT MANAGER REGIONAL BRANCH MANAGER BRANCH MANAGER ASSISTANT BRANCH MANAGER 3 CIRCLE INCHARGE (CITY, METRO UP COUNTRY) AREA EXECUTIVE SUPERVISOR SALES MAN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM ITC uses FIFO method to reduce the wastage of goods due to expiry. They also keep the good on constant move from low sales area to high sales area. The company collects all the expired goods four times a year, and destroys them. Retailers must return expired or damaged products within six months after the date of expire. Adjustment for them is done in three months time. ITC provides their retailers with racks, hangers, etc to display the products. MARKETING STRATEGY As one of Indias most valuable and respected corporations, ITC is widely perceived to be dedicatedly nation-oriented. Chairman Y C Deveshwar calls this source of inspiration a commitment beyond the market. In his own words: ITC believes that its aspiration to create enduring value for the nation provides the motive force to sustain growing shareholder value. ITC practices this philosophy by not only driving each of its businesses towards international competitiveness but by also consciously contributing to enhancing the competitiveness of the larger value chain of which it is a part. I The company seem to be committed with developing India and contributing in its own way not only to succeed in at a smaller level but making a difference at a global level in an international way. ITC VISION The companys vision is to sustain ITCs position as one of Indias most valuable corporations through world class performance, creating growing values for the Indian economy and Companys stakeholders. ITC MISSION To enhance the wealth generating capability of the enterprise in a globalising environment, delivering superior and sustainable stakeholder value is what the Companys mission is. STRATEGY With its one of its product which is Sunfeast the company is determined to give happiness, contentment, satisfaction and pleasure since its mascot is Sunny and slogan spread the smile which stood true to its name. ITCs Sunfeast is a brand driven by innovative product development at ITCs state-of-the-art food technology centre in Bengaluru. Every Sunfeast product is made with utmost care, ensuring world class standards of hygiene. Sunfeast symbolises ITCs commitment to create brands that enrich the quality of life for every Indian. Because our people and our country deserves the best. The product Sunfeast was launched in the midst when the biscuit market in India was estimated to be about a value of Rs 45 billion and out of that Britannia and Parle held more than 80% of the organized sector in value terms. ITC therefore decided to enter the branded biscuits market with products that would reinforce the gratifying aspects of the brand as well as offer great taste and quality to customers. The ITC can be a classical example of study as a tobacco company who deals in various products can be successful in promoting in marketing biscuits? The core competencies on which ITC relies on the depth of distribution, brand building capability and ability of quality outsourcing which made it successful. Sunfeast which was launched in 2003 was one of its diversified arrays apart from a tobacco product leader to a FMCG player. IT has a well developed system of distribution which can only be compared only to HLL. As ITC was one company who has its intervene in all major fields so this establishes Sunfeast among all over India and as well outside India. The biscuit market is to be estimated about 4500-5000 crore with Parle and Britannia being the major players. The biscuit market has now moved from core glucose to value added biscuits and key markets were U.P., Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. While the rural market prefers Glucose biscuits and Urban market is fond of cream biscuits. The establishment of brand was never easy as the market is already having lead biscuit companies which were satisfying the needs of people. Sunfeast monitored the market demand and carefully handled promotion and brand building which made the brand to gain 10% market share. The product was made exciting by launching a series of convenience goods, new tastes and flavours which lead to an interest in the brand. The company continued a series of launching of products like Milky magic, coconut, strawberry, pineapple, butterscotch and cream and it also entered the premium biscuit category with Dark Fantasy. Moreover market research revealed that consumers were looking for innovation, variety, and fun in all the biscuits cateogries. A mascot, Sunny was chosen to convey these aspects of ITCs biscuit brands. Initial offerings included the Sunfeast Glucose biscuits, targeting children and their mothers; Sunfeast Orange Marie, targeting housewives and families; and Sunfeast Orange cream, Butterscotch cream and Bourbon Cream, targeting children in the age group between 4 and 14 years. Over the last few years, the Sunfeast range has expanded with the introduction of the Sunfeast Dark Fantasy range in the premium segment; the Sunfeast Milky Magic in the milk biscuit category; the Snacky in salted crackers and cookies category. In addition, ITC entered the nutritional biscuit segment with launch of Sachins Fit Kit- a range of healthy products co-created with the cricket icon. In 2007 the brand has a value of Rs 5 billion and is growing at 15% per year. MARKETING FUNCTION PRODUCTS Snack foods Sunfeast In July 2003, ITC forayed into the Biscuits market with the Sunfeast range of Glucose, Marie and Cream Biscuits. Sunfeasts brand essence, Spread the Smile connotes happiness, contentment, satisfaction and pleasure. The mascot Sunny reinforces the emotional aspects of the brand. In a span of 6 years Sunfeast has launched many new varieties and has its presence in almost all types of biscuit categories. Sunfeast Milky Magic Packed with goodness of milk these deliciously nutritious crisp and crunchy biscuits are a favorite among mothers and kids. Milky Magic has the power of 2 A perfect balance of energy that aids physical strength and mental ability. These biscuits strike the right balance of milk and wheat which helps in an all round development and nurturing of the child. Sunfeast Marie Sunfeast Marie Light: This ideal teatime biscuit is made from the finest quality wheat high in fibre and keeps one light and healthy through the day. Orange Marie: It has the distinction of being one of the most successful innovative Marie biscuits and is liked by one and all. Sunfeast Golden Bakery Sunfeast Golden Bakery is a premium cookie on an innovative and differentiated platform. Launched nationally in March 2008, these cookies are made from the recipes crafted by the master bakers of ITC Hotels and are slowly baked in the traditional way till they are golden brown and develop the crispy broken crust texture. The Sunfeast Golden Bakery cookies are available in three distinct flavors Butter-Nut, Butterscotch and Choco-Nut cookies. These products are designed to give consumers a rich truly indulgent experience. Sunfeast Dark Fantasy Inspired by the Master Chefs of ITC hotels, it is the richest of chocolate vanilla biscuits. These biscuits are created using carefully chosen premium ingredients for a sensory experience unlike any other. Dark Fantasy is more than a biscuit; its a luxurious mix of aromatic cocoa and vanilla. Sunfeast Glucose For those light hunger pangs, wholesome nutritious choices as these golden brown biscuits are made from the best quality wheat. Sunfeast Glucose biscuits are ideal not just for kids but adults too. Sunfeast Dream Cream A truly scrumptious range of cream biscuits that have become an instant hit with children. ITCs chefs have put their legendary skills into these biscuits to deliver truly tasty cream biscuits. Special Flavor Crystals in Strawberry and Pineapple cream biscuits keep the creamy flavor linger on. Strawberry Cream The first of its kind cream biscuit with special strawberry flavor crystals that will keep the creamy flavor linger on. Bourbon A special delight for all those chocolate lovers. Orange Cream Experience a tangy twist in biscuits with every Orange cream. Butterscotch Cream Another first, the taste of ice-cream in cream biscuits. Mango Cream A special summer flavor cream biscuits for all those who love the king of fruits. Elaichi Cream Taste the queen of spices in cream biscuits. Sunfeast Snacky Bigger than most others in the salted biscuit category, Snacky is light and crispy like no other. From kids to adults, its the quintessential Family Biscuit. Available in two variants, Classic salted and Chilli flakes the very first of its kind in India. Sunfeast sweet n salt These thin and crisp biscuits come with a distinctive sundry taste, that of salt and sweetness. A bite into one of these one keeps wondering about its taste! Sunfeast Nice These are crisp coconut biscuits showered with sugar crystals. The crisp sugary sweetness will just go on to make all those nice moments nicer. Sunfeast Benne Vita Flaxseed Biscuits If Benne Vita in Italian stands for Good Life, then Benne Vita Flaxseed biscuits just make the good life better. The Flaxseed content in these protein and mineral enriched biscuits are rich source of Omega III acids that helps control cholesterol. Flaxseed is the richest plant source of these essential Omega-3 Fatty Acids. It is also rich in dietary fibre, proteins, calcium and other minerals to maintain healthy heart and good gut health. Sunfeast Special ITC Sunfeast presents a range of Special cookies and creams. Special Cookies: Made with best quality wheat, cashew and butter, Sunfeast Special cookies are baked with real butter and the finest ingredients to give a mouth-watering treat that makes every moment special. Available in Cashew/ Butter/ Coconut. Special Creams: Delicious value for money cream biscuits with a thick layer of cream sandwiched between two biscuits. Available in Orange and Chocolate variants. Sunfeast Pasta The Sunfeast product portfolio was expanded in early 2005 to include healthy snacking options as well. Sunfeast Pasta Treat, a whole wheat based instant pasta was introduced as a healthy snacking option for children and young adults. After the tremendous success of the 4 initial flavors, (Masala, Tomato Cheese, Cheese and Sour Cream), the instant Pasta range has been extended with three new exciting flavors Pizza style, Chicken and Tangy Tomato. PRICE Sunfeast Glucose Biscuits deliver the Natural Goodness of Wheat and is available in 100 gms, 75 gms and 19 gms priced at Rs. 4, Rs. 3 and Re 1 respectively, targeting children between the age group 4 14 years and their mothers. Sunfeast Orange Marie a very differentiated offering is available in 200 gms, priced at Rs. 13 and Sunfeast Marie Light Light Crispy, available in 200 gms and 400 gms, priced at Rs. 13 and Rs. 24 respectively that target housewives. Sunfeast Orange Cream, Sunfeast Butterscotch Cream Sunfeast Bourbon Cream Smooth Yummy Cream Biscuits, available in 100 gms, priced at Rs. 11, Rs. 11 and Rs. 12 respectively that target children between the age group 4 14 years. DISTRIBUTION It has fast and effective sales ordering processes. A great level of flexibility and a quick turnaround time to meet the customer requirements on time. It also practices minimum wastages. ITC follows a strict compliance standard for its distribution of Sunfeast products. It aims at low profit margins due to intense competition in the biscuit industry and even to meet the high customer service expectation. The company collects all the expired goods four times a year, and destroys them. Retailers must return expired or damaged products within six months after the date of expire. The company used its existing network of convenience stores the companys name for the hole-in-the-wall pan-beedi shops for Sunfeast. Not content with the existing resources, the company also looked at grocery stores and other retail formats. The company says the brand is now available in nearly 1.8 million outlets SALES PROMOTION AND ADVERTISEMENTS The entire range of Sunfeast Biscuits is packed in vibrant colours, distinctive graphics and fonts identifying sub categories and at the same time, maintaining a consistent look of Sunfeast. The brand is supported with Television campaigns across National and Vernacular media beginning August 2003 that is distinct, highlighting the product attributes, quality and the new first time in the market offerings from Sunfeast. During the launch phase, Consumer promotions were conducted across retail outlets for every purchase of Sunfeast Marie Sunfeast Cream Biscuits 75gms of Glucose Biscuits FREE. Encyclomedia Networks created an interesting idea, which shows the biscuit pack literally taking off from the hoarding what holds it down is a rope that attaches the end of the pack to the hoarding. The biscuit pack has been designed as a 3D pack. Well differentiated advertisements, some which showed a complete cream world with cream rivers, cream mountains and cream trees, were targeted at kids watching cartoon channels. The animated Sun this is a symbol of contentment, Satisfaction and Pleasure. This was also received by the consumers and the ad campaigns are catchy and full of colours and excitement. The product is also of very high quality. Thus Sunfeast has manged to get all the winning combinations in the right mix. At the same time, on general entertainment channels, mothers received information on the importance of glucose, the wholeness of wheat and so on. Also, the company tied up with Bey Blades, the popular television series that was a rage among children, to promote itself. Sunfeast tagline Spread the Smile was being endorsed By Sharukh khan. SRK use made sense as he was popular among Children and moreover he is among the favourites about 60% of Indians and moreover his persona is energetic which corresponds to the mascot of the brand. The various advertisements and promotional shows featured SRK and showed that even SRK is also a fan and enjoy Sunfeast Biscuits. So it created an impression among the audience that their favourite actor is following this commodity so they should follow the same way. ITC Foods has tied up with New York-based Company House of Spices to launch its biscuit brand Sunfeast across the US and that was again done by SRK since he is a global icon. In the same year, as the official sponsor ofthe WTA tennis championship titled the Sunfeast Open the company had teenage sensations Sania Mirza and Mahesh Bhupathi campaigning for it. But thats not all. For promotions in southern states, Sunfeast has signed Tamil super star Surya as a brand ambassador. Analysts say that ITCs deep pockets have helped Sunfeast in many ways. The company claims that it has been spending 35-40 per cent of its turnover from the biscuits segment on advertising and promotions. Going by that number, ITCs annual marketing spends are estimated to be in the region of about Rs 115-120 crore (Rs billion). CONSUMER ANALYSIS The analyses showed that majorly people consumed Biscuits and are not fond of having the Sunfeast Pastas. About 63% of people prefer having Sunfeast Marie and Sunfeast Dream Cream is being preferd by only 25% of the consumers. The products like Sunfeast Special, Sweet n Salt, and Golden Bakery are not that much appereciated as only 13% of people prefer them. In dream Cream Butterscotch, Orange and Burbon were equally appreciated. Classic Snacky was more liked as compared to Chilli flakes in Snacky brand. 90% people prefer having Marie lite over Orange Marie and the product is not just consumed by Old but almost people of every age group. In Golden Bakery choco nut was mostly liked while there was no intrest in the rest of the choices. Coconut and Butter were equally liked in Special cateogary. 63% prefer Sunfeast because of its Taste and Flavour while 25% likes them because of price, packaging, quality. People also appereciated it because of availability of large variety. It was also observed from the survey, that the products were regularly by the customers, most of them going for weekly and fortnightly purchase of the product. The major competitors for the product are Parle and Britannia which were even a threat when the product was launched. The brand loyalty seems to very weak as when consumers were asked that would they continue to consume Sunfeast even if other products were at a discount, the answer came as No. The people were specific in the categories but not with the brand Sunfeast. The television seems to be most effective form of advertisement as it spread awareness in almost every age group and was the major promotional tool. The brand was easily available to people and even remotest to smallest shops have Sunfeast for sale. The people seem to be assured of quality and said that they would recommend their friends and relatives the product. COMPETITION ANALYSIS Back in 2003, nobody thoughtSunfeast would have consumers eating out of its hands. Says Naware, Seven per cent in less than three years is something that we could have only dreamt about. Importantly, industry barometer AC Nielsen has indicated that both Parle and Britannia are losing market shares. According to the AC Nielsen retail sales audit in March 2006, both Britannia and Parle have lost volumes. Britannias shares have dropped from 35.8 per cent in 2004-05 to 30.5 per cent in May 2006 (volumes). Parles shares have also dropped from 42.2 to 38.4 per cent in the same period. Even Priya Gold has seen a minor dip from 6.4 per cent to 5 per cent. ITCs Sunfeast has been a big gainer with its share increasing from 2.7 to 6.7 per cent. In terms of value,Britannia leads the market with 37 per cent market share, followedby Parles 31.3 per cent and ITCs 6.3 per cent. Nevertheless, the gap is still wide. Sunfeast still has a long way to go. But what can the bigger players do? Alagh has an interesting observation. Says he, Biscuits have always been a low margin, high volume game. Both Britannia and Parle have very high volumes and can easily afford to lower their margins. A potential after-effect? Sunfeast too may have to drop its prices to be in the reckoning and this will squeeze its margin even lower. While the full game is yet to be played out, for the moment the sun seems to be shining on Sunfeast. Creaming the market. . . Innovation in the product line biscuits with butterscotch cream with actual granules in the cream, strawberry cream with flavor-enhancers and orange-flavored marie. Gained an edge from the well established distribution network of its tobacco business. Signed up big film stars like Shah Rukh Khan and southern star Surya as brand ambassadors for

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Sociology Concepts on the Individual and Society

Sociology Concepts on the Individual and Society Sociology developed as an academic discipline throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. Provide an explanation of the historical and social context from which sociology developed. Sociology has its roots in the changes within the society since the 18th and 19th centuries as there was the industrial revolution, the creation of empires, and the enlightenment of scientific reasoning ( Bauman and May 2001, p. 3). Furthermore, early practitioners developed the discipline as an attempt to understand the societal changes. During the 1960s, especially, it became a major social science subject. ( Do mention capitalism) Moreover, sociology is determined as a new academic discipline as it emerged in the early 19th century in response to the challenges of modernity (British sociology). Eventually, there was an increasing exposure of people to cultures and societies different from their own due to the increasing mobility and technological advancement. Throughout this exposure, there was variation in the way people would eventually accept the sociology as a discipline. However, for some people it included the breakdown of traditional norms and customs and warranted a nuanced understanding of how the world works. Furthermore, the term Sociology was coined by Auguste Comte in 1838. Comte hoped to unify all the sciences under sociology he believed sociology held the potential to improve society and direct human activity. In addition, the development of sociology was first recognized in the mid-19th century by the English philosopher Herbert Spencer as he had written a book with term Sociology in its title. In the United States, the first sociology course was taught at the University of Kansas, Lawrence in 1890 under the title Elements of Sociology. In brief, sociology emerged in Comte’s vision; it eventually subsuming all other areas of scientific inquiry, sociology did not replace the other sciences. Indeed, in the past decades, sociological research focused on the organization of complex, industrial societies and their influence on individuals. Today, sociologists study a broad range of topics which can be structures that deals with the organization of the society such as race or ethnicity, social class and gender roles. This shows the development of sociology throughout the years. Sociology involves a unique way of thinking. What are the features of sociological thinking and C. Wright Mills Sociological imagination? Sociology involves a unique way of thinking as one should have a broad mind in order to see little difference in everyday routine (Johnson Bethany 03 June 2015). Indeed, the sociological imagination is a concept used by the American sociologist C. Wright Mills to describe the ability to â€Å"think yourself away from the familiar routines of everyday life† and look at them from an entirely new perspective (Johnson Bethany 03 June 2015). In order to develop such skills, one must be able to free yourself from one context and look at things from an alternative point of view (Johnson Bethany 03 June 2015). Furthermore, Mills defined sociological imagination as â€Å"the vivid awareness of the relationship between experience and the wider society† (Johnson Bethany 03 June 2015). It is a way of thinking about things in society that have led to some sort of outcome, and understanding what causes led to that outcome. The sociological imagination is the ability to see things socially and how they interact an influence each other. According to the theorist C. Wright Mills who stated that to do this; one must use critical thinking skills, such as the use of the sociological thinking. In addition, the sociological thinking and sociological imagination are intertwined and works together. In brief, Mills deduced that one of the key ways people understand society and social change is to apply the sociological imagination. This involves something called making the familiar strange, or questioning and critiquing the world around us. It is similar to putting on a new pair of glasses, in this case with sociological lenses, seeing our society and the everyday behaviors and interactions we usually take for granted in a different way. In this case of analyzing the society critical thinking is a mean of understanding the surroundings in different perspectives. One way of using sociology to understand the relationship between the individual and society is to use different perspectives and models of society. Explain and contrast the key features of macro and micro models of society. Sociology has helped to understand the process of relationship between the individual and society. The society has contributed to the interaction, cooperating, and acting with one another. Furthermore, the question that arises is how to behave in one’s society, what is right and what is wrong, all these things has to be learn in the society (Mondal, 2015). Indeed macrosociology involves the study of widespread social processes whereas microsociology involves the study of people in face to face interactions. Firstly, macro and micro level studies each possess their own benefits and disadvantages. For instance, macrosociology allows observation of large-scale patterns and trends, but runs the risk of seeing these trends as abstract entities that exist outside of the individuals who enact them on the ground (Mondal, 2015). Beneath, examples can be objective or subjective in accordance with macro studies such as: society, law, bureaucracy, architecture, technology and language for objective aspects. In addition, subjective examples would be culture, norms and values (Mondal, 2015). In contrast to macro level, microsociology allows for this on-the-ground analysis, but can fail to consider the larger forces that influence individual behavior. However, sociological analysis can take place at micro level, and can be subjective or objective. Classifying the objectives examples would be patterns of behavior, action, and interaction (Mondal Puja 02 June 2015). In addition, subjective examples would be perception, beliefs and the various facets of the social construction of reality (Mondal, 2015). In brief, it can be deduced that macro and micro level studies plays an important role within the society. It helps in the process of integration of the individual and the sustainability of the society. Using sociological concepts and theories, explain the relationship between the individual and society. Answer should include explanations of the following: how the key sociological concepts of socialization, social order and social stratification can be applied to the analysis of the relationship between the individual and society. How a theory of consensus, a theory of conflict and a theory of social action can be applied to an analysis of the relationship between the individual and society? Sociologists develop theories to explain social phenomena. A theory is a proposed relationship between two or more concepts such as theory of consensus, a theory of conflict and a theory of social action and can be applied to an analysis of the relationship between the individual and society. In other words, a theory is explanation for why or how a phenomenon occurs (Putnam, Robert, 2001).In addition, the relationship between individual and society can be viewed from three angles that are functionalist, conflict and symbolic interaction perspective. Secondly, functionalist perspective focuses upon the macro level as it takes into consideration the individual as formed by society through the influence of such institution as the family, school and workplace (Mondal,2015). Furthermore, functionalism draws its inspiration primarily from the ideas of Emilie Durkheim (Durkheim, and Lewis A. Coser. 1997). Indeed the functionalist deals up with rules and status that exists in society so as to provide social control or social order as it is necessary for survival. Durkheim pursued to explain social cohesion and stability through the concept of solidarity as the individual and the society would perform similar tasks that held the society together. Based on the metaphor of an organism in which many parts function together to sustain the whole, Durkheim argued that modern complex societies are held together by organic solidarity (think interdependent organs) (Durkheim, and Lewis A. Coser. 1997). Thirdly, there is conflict theory maintains that society as a complex system striving for equilibrium in contrast to functionalist but rather as a competition. Society is made up of individuals competing for limited resources (e.g., money, leisure, sexual partners, etc.) (Smith, Christian. 2003). However, the conflict theory contributes to social change in contrast to the functional approach. In fact, there are primary assumptions of conflict theory that are; consensus is characteristic of human relationships rather than competition, individuals and groups that benefit from any particular structure strive to see it maintained (Smith, Christian. 2003). Last but not the least, there is symbolic theory which may involves exchange of communication or symbols among individuals. Here, the symbolic plays a prominent role in relationship with the individual and the society as it involves interchanging of culture and teaching. Symbolic theory argues that people become selves by learning and internalizing the symbolic materials of the social and historical context and culture they are born into and raised within (e.g., the individual is formed by the society), and then act back upon and alter societies (e.g., norms, cultures and structures) by deploying the symbolic resources at their disposal throughout the course of their ongoing lives (e.g., the society is formed by the joint action of individuals) (Merton, Robert 1957). Thus to conclude, the a theory of consensus, a theory of conflict and a theory of social action can be applied to an analysis of the relationship between the individual and society as it can be deduced that each theory plays an integral part within the society. Each theory has its own contribution to the upbringing, stability and continuous survival of the society. References Question 1 Bauman and May 2001 introduction(Bauman and May 2001, chapter 10, Thinking Sociologically) Accessed on 1:57 PM 21 June 2105 NPTEL – Humanities and Social Sciences – Introduction to Sociology Accessed on 2:05 PM 21 June 2015 Question 2 Bethany Johnson C. Wright Mills and his view on the power elite and the sociological imagination. Accessed on 11:52 am 03 June 2015,9429,15101501510152,00.html Accessed on 11:52 am 03 June 2015 Question 3 Boundless. â€Å"Levels of Analysis: Micro and Macro.† Boundless Sociology. Boundless, Assessed on 14:29 pm 27 Jun. 2015. Mondal Puja 02 June 2015 Assessed on 09:00 am 26 June, 2015 Assessed on 10:15 am 26 June, 2015 †º Essays †º Sociology Assessed on 11:00 am 26 June, 2015 Question 4 Durkheim, Emile, and Lewis A. Coser. 1997. The Division of Labor in Society. Free Press. Mondal Puja 02 June 2015 Assessed on 09:00 am 26 June, 2015 Putnam, Robert D. 2001. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. 1st ed. Simon Schuster. Merton, Robert (1957). Social Theory and Social Structure, revised and enlarged. London: The Free Press of Glencoe. Smith, Christian. 2003. The Secular Revolution: Power, Interests, and Conflict in the Secularization of American Public Life. 1st ed. University of California Press.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Two Women in Proverbs 9 Essay -- Religion Bible Proverbs 9 women Essay

Two Women in Proverbs 9 Proverbs has always been one of the most renowned and loved books of the Bible. According to the prologue, it was written â€Å"to teach shrewdness to the simple, knowledge and prudence to the young† (1.4), and to â€Å"let the wise also hear and gain in learning, and the discerning acquire skill† (1.5). It is primarily addressed to young men, as the author makes frequent references to â€Å"my son† throughout. The purpose of this book was to help prepare young men for leadership and life. A proverb, which serves the purpose of drawing a comparison between two forms of behavior to teach moral wisdom, explicitly fulfills its role in particularly chapter 9 of Proverbs. In light of this father-to-son instruction, the author uses the personification of two different types of women in order to illustrate the two corresponding paths of life: wisdom and folly. Although there are many striking similarities of both women in Proverbs 9, the subtle differences between the two didactically imparts life lessons to young men. The speaker begins the passage of Proverbs 9, by informing that the first similarity that Lady Wisdom and Lady Folly share is the possession of a house. The only apparent difference is that Lady Wisdom has built her own house: â€Å"Wisdom has built her house; she has hewn her seven pillars† (9.1). Lady Wisdom has not simply constructed her home, but it is given that her house is a large one, representing wealth. There is no reference to Lady Folly building her house—she sluggishly just â€Å"sits at the door of her house† (9.14). Metaphorically, the speaker of this passage is advising the young men to be hard-working, signifying the importance of diligence, which is a constant underlying thre... ...m will lead to life. The speaker is saying that it is well worth it to embark on the path of wisdom and to persevere through it for there is an unseen reward awaiting them. Lady Wisdom and Lady Folly are not mentioned in Proverbs 9 to be merely two contrasting women that the young men should be aware of when they look for a wife. Representing the two ways of life, Lady Wisdom and Lady Folly are used to bring awareness to the young men about the subtle differences between the respective routes of life. It is emphasized that every decision counts and that just one decision can mean the difference between life and death. Because the teacher knows that the young men are the ones who will ultimately make crucial decisions of their own, he uses this particular juxtaposition of Lady Wisdom and Lady Folly to prepare them for what challenges lie ahead for them.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

The British Empire Essay -- British History, Industrialization, Politi

The British Empire is the largest empire ever seen on the face of this planet. The empire was divided into two. The first part of the empire revolved around the British colonies in America that were popularly known as the thirteen colonies. These gained independence from Britain in 1783. The second part of the empire, which developed from the first empire, came later. It started during the Napoleonic wars and survived throughout the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. In fact, the British withdrew from its last colony, Hong Kong, in 1997; indeed the empire lasted for a long time. It developed from India and spun to regions of Africa and Australia. The influence and the power of the empire spun around the world shaping it in different ways. This influence is still evident in many places that fell under its control (Ferguson, 2004). To many people the world is the way it is due to the effects of the British Empire. Certainly, this empire just like other nu merous empires before it and after it had triumphs and humiliations; however, the fact that this empire had numerous good effects cannot be overemphasized. The empire impacted positively on Britain and the colonies. The first notable positive effect of the empire is industrialization. The British having been ahead in industrial evolution helped spread technology to new places around the world. Particularly, the British Empire was responsible for the development of early industries in their colonies (Balasubramanyam & Wei, 79). They built industries in the colonies such as sugar factories, cotton factories and tobacco industries. Certainly, this was a new development in these colonies that later led to the colonies mechanizing their cottage industri... ...ver, as a result of the demands of abolitionists, the British parliament enacted laws such as the Slave Trade Act 1807, which resulted in abolishing trade. Certainly, this was a remarkable contribution to the respect of human rights. Clearly, the vast empire also left a vast influence. The numerous positive affects are still evident today in most of the former colonies. Indeed, as most people believed the â€Å"sun never sets† on the British Empire. Most people believe that the current state of the world is a product of the empire. Numerous things including educational systems, farming, judicial, governance systems and others around the world are a product of the empire. The empire left a permanent mutual relationship among former colonies, which still enjoy trade and diplomatic ties. It is, therefore, beyond doubt that the empire had numerous positive effects.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Definitions of events management Essay

Events management can be said to have emerged from the increasing commercialisation of popular celebrations, from big affairs such as concerts to small and private gatherings. Bowdin, et al. explained that in certain historical aspects, the increasing importance of events were noted because of the benefits they bring as enumerated through its purpose and objectives. An example noted by the authors were the emergence of the industry as encouraged by political and religious reasons; this happened in the United Kingdom where exhibitions became a popular event that it needed to be sustained. The approach to the sustainability of events, especially as this would lead to the formation of an industry, would then become integral to the management requirements of this practice. Across the world, the management of events would become a more formal approach in organizing festivals and other festivities. Bowdin, et al. therefore presented the following definition of events as follows (14): â€Å"[†¦] anything which happens; result; any incidence or occurrence esp (sic) a memorable one; contingency or possibility of occurrence; an item in a programme (of sports, etc.); A type of horseriding competition, often held over three days (three-day event) consisting of three sections ie dressage, cross country riding and show jumping; fortune or fate (obs); an organized activity at a particular venue, eg. for sales promotion or fundraising. † Based on these definitions, the events that fall under event management are applicable in all aspects. Basically, the last definitiion, â€Å"an organized activity at a particular venue, eg. for sales promotion or fundraising† (14) can be said to already encompass what an event is. However, it should be also noted that the fundamentals of events management also refers to the uniqueness of the event, hence, it is memorable. At the same time, an event may have many sub-events such as â€Å"items†. Last but not the least, as based on the cited definition, an event also includes contingency or possibility of occurrence. This therefore brings up the aspect of events management in which case it is not just about ensuring that the event takes place, but also the management formalises the event in a sense that it is defined by a specific strategy. As previously mentioned, an event in the events management context becomes a project; in this case, the aspects of project management is applied. It is initially important to define what a project is, and according to Bowdin, et al, (267), an event as a project â€Å"produces an asset [†¦] the asset is the ultimate deliverable of the project. The management is the planning, the organizing, leading, and controlling of the project†. Hence, based on these, Bowdin, et al. presented the definition of event management in the following (267): â€Å"The project management of events concentrates on the management process to create the event, not just what happens at the event [†¦] (it) is called the ‘overlay’ as it integrates all the tasks of management. Event management is made up of a number of management areas including planning, leading, marketing, design, control and budgeting, risk management, logistics, staging and evaluation. Each of these areas continuously affect each other over the event life cycle†. Shone and Parry, furthermore, mentioned that in order for an event to be managed in a similar context, the event has to be â€Å"special†; based on this, the authors presented the following pointing out the definitions of events that are managed: †¢ Leisure events (leisure, sport recreation) †¢ Personal events (weddings, birthdays, anniversaries) †¢ organisational events (commercial, political, charitable, sales) †¢ cultural (ceremonial, sacred, heritage, art, folklore) The Events Management Concept and Practice Event management is therefore a discipline and a practice. There are many concepts and aspects of event management that needs to be considered especially among those who specialise in certain components of the practice. One of the common perceptions of event management is its dimension as a coordinating activities. Silvers (28) mentioned that in event coordination, the coordinators visualise, organise and synchronise the different elements of an event. In addition, in event coordination, the coordinator also identifies the purpose, scope and the program of the event by means of identifying its intent, extent, and content. Another important point raised by Silvers (28) is that, in agreement with the past discussions on the nature of event management as similar or related to project management, the author also further mentioned the processes involved both in the coordination and the management of events. These aspects, for instance, is through the discussion on the Project Scope (28-29): †¢ Identifying the needs and requirements of the event including the definition of its purpose and the expected outcomes †¢ the description of the product as spelled out by the type of event †¢ product analysis or the identification of the components of the product †¢ the feasibility of the product as based on the analysis of the resources From these, the event becomes more definite through the design of a Work Breakdown Structure and Activity Schedule (29). Another important approach in event management can be considered in the perceptions of the customers, competition and the sponsors. Silvers discussed the aspect of the consumers and the competition. According to the author, the customers make up the â€Å"marketing realm† of the event (30). Hence, it is important to identify a target segment because this helps in the design of the event, from its scope to its marketing to its implementation. Silvers also discussed the competition; for cases such as bars and clubs, any weekend night poses a great amount of competition for any establishment holding an event that night. As the author stressed, it is significant that the bar or club is aware what kind of other events that will take place in another establishment. It is therefore in the strategy of the club or bar owner, along with its hired events specialist, to determine how to best approach competition.